28th Session held in Karachi
The Twenty-eighth National Congress met in Karachi, Sindh, on the 26th, 27th and 28th December, 1913. The Pavilion was dignified and well decorated, and each of the sixteen gates was ornamented with a motto descriptive idea. The delegates were 550 in numbers, distributed as follows:
Bombay and Sindh … … … … 264
U.P … … … … … 13
Punjab … … … … … 10
Behar … … … … … 4
Madras … … … … 33
Bengal … … … … … 22
Canada … … … … … 3
Sindh (Reception Committee)… … … 201
Some notable figures were absent from the Congress. The heart-effection which killed him in 1915 kept Mr. Gokhale away, and Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, Mr. Surendarranath Bannerji and Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya were all absent.
The Hon. Mr. Harchandrai Vishindas, the Chair-man of the Reception Committee, welcomed. The President-elect and the delegates, and gave a short sketch of Sindh and its special difficulties, such as its decinial revision Settlements and its irrigation problem. He then turned to the various questions which lay before the Congress for discussion, and finally called on the delegates formally to elect the Hon. Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur as President. The proposal was moved by Rao Bahadur R.N. Mudholkar, seconded by Rai Baikunthanath Sen, supported by Mr. Gopaldas Jhamatmal and Pandit Rambhuj Dutt Choudhuri, and carried with acclamation.
After speaking of the necessity of the continued work of the Congress, he alluded to the King-Emperor’s message on leaving India, and urged that the unity hoped for by His Majesty should be sought, and that Muhammadans, Christians, Parsis, and Hindus should advance together, rather than in separate groups. He noted the rapprochement of Hindus and Musalmans, as shown by the hope expressed by All-India Muslim League that the leaders on the both sides should meet periodically “to find a modus operandi for joint and concerned action in questions of public good“. He next spoke of the troubles of the Indians in South Africa, then reaching their Climax, and he advised retaliatory measures against South Africans whites, such as shutting out Natal coal, and closing the door of the Civil Service against them. He then turned to the India Council and the need for its radical reform; it must be only an advisory, not an administrative body. He repeated the condemnation of the Regulations which had spoiled the reforms, showed ho dilatory was the action of Government with regard to Local Self-Government, emphasized the enormous importance of the Primary and Technical Education, and the need of Permanent Settlement to relieve the grave economic situation. The President alluded also to the Public Service Commission then in India, and urged the granting to Indians of Commissions in the Army, Quoting some recent remarks on the subject by Lord Minto in London, the previous year, relating his efforts to bring it about. He then said a few words, fraught with deep emotion, on “the subversion of the Ottaman power in Europe and the strangling of Persia,” and expressed the grief with which all the Muslims had felt the blow to their Turkish brethren. He concluded with an earnest plea that Hindus and Musalmans should clasp hands, and work for the motherland. “The tide of the National Unity….by God’s Grace, will surely sweep away in its majestic onward course the unnatural and artificial barriers of race, colour and religion”.
The President resumed his seat amid loud applause.
The second day’s work began with the moving from the Chair of Resolution I, regretting the deaths of Mr. J.Ghosal and Mr. Justice P.R. Sundara Aiyar. It was passed standing.
Resolution II, dealing with the Indians in South Africa, was moved by Dewan Bahadur L. A. Govinda-raghava Aiyar, and seconded by Lala Lajpat Rai in Hindustani. It was supported by six more speakers, who urged the arguments so familiar to us all, and was carried.
The second day began with the moving of Resolution III, the Separation of Judicial and Executive Function, by Mr. C. P. Ramasami Aiyar, who quoted Sir Harvey Adamson’s condemnation of a judge having the police organization at his back; Mr. R. C. Dutt and Sir Pherozeshah Mehat had showed that the reform would not entail extra expenditure. A re-distribution of functions among munsiffs, magistrates and judges could be made without greater cost. Mr. K. C. Ganguli seconded, complaining that the Congress had passed an annual resolution since 186, but the bureaucracy opposed it. Messrs. Lalchand Navalrai and Abdul Rahman supported,and the resolution was carried.
Resolution IV welcomed the adoption be the Muslim League of the ideal of Self-Government for India, and declaration of the necessity of the harmonious co-operation, to be found by the leaders deciding on joint concerted action. It was proposed by Mr. Bhupendranath Basu, saying that Hindus and Muhammdans must concentrate their attention on the one united ideal, for the India of to-day was not the India of Hindu or the Muslim, nor of the Anglo-Indian, much less of the European, but the India in which all had a share. “ If there have been misunderstanding in the past, let us forget them.” If they were united, “the India of the future will be a stronger, nobler, greater, higher, aye, and a brighter India than was realized by Ashoka in the plentitude of his power, a better India than was revealed to Akbar in the wildest of his visions ”.
Rao Bahadur R. N. Mudholkar seconded, and said that the Congress and the League now stood on a common platform, and could work together. Mr. Jehangir B. Petit said that many had thought that if they did they would be a powerful instrument for good and a force a force to be reckoned with. Mr. D. A. Khare said that Self-Government would be won by the brotherhood of Hindu and Muslim. Mr. Mathradas Ramchand further supported, and Mr. C. Gopala Menon welcomed the pronouncement of the Muslim League as marking an important epoch in the history of Congress. Mr. D. E. Wacha said that the Congress had entered on a new Nativity and with the new Star they would achieve new success. The Resolution was carried with great applause.
Resolution V was on the Reform of the India Council. It was moved by Mr. M. A. Jinah, who pointed out that the Council as composed of old official who had served in India, and non-official India had no voice. The Secretary of State of India was responsible to nobody, and was a greater Mughal than any Mughal who had ever ruled in India. Mr. N. M. Samarth seconded, and said that secretary of State of India should be elected by Indians. The Hon. Mr. Krishna Rao supported, and gave a short review of the changes that had taken place in the constitution of the Council. The Resolution wad further supported by Messrs. Gopaldas Jhamatmal and Surendarnath Malik, and carried.
The Congress then adjourned.
On meeting for the third session, the Congress took up a new question, the “continuous journey clause” of the Canadians Privy Council Order, No. 920. the ingenuity of this clause was that it forbade Indians to enter Canada unless they had made a continuous journey from India, and they could not make a continuous journey because there was no direct boat-servise and the Steamship Companies refused through books. Hence it forbad the entry of any Indian to Canada, and prevented any Indian already there from bringing his wife and family. [It as this order which caused the chartering of the Kumagatu and the subsequent troubles.]
The Resolution (VI) was moved by Sardar Nand Singg Sikra, who, himself a Singh, spoke for his brethren in Canada, but pointed out that all India suffered in the suffering of Sikhs in Canada and Indians in South Africa, and “we join hands as one United Nation, and with one heart and one voice we condemn the Colonial atrocities”. The Chief Justice of British Columbia had condemned as illegal the Federal Orders in Council, but that did not seem to help them much. Grnrral Swayne had explained the real reason of the exclusion. He said:
One of those things that make the presence of East Indians here, or in any other white Colony, politically inexpedient, is the familiarity they acquire with the whites, the instance of which is given by the speedy elimination of caste in this Province, as shown by the way all castes help each other. These men go back to India, and preach ideas of emancipation, which, if brought about, would upset the machinery of law and order. While this emancipation may be a good thing at some future date, the present time is premature for the emancipation of caste.
Is then the whole Empire is a conspiracy against Indian freedom, and is caste to be a weapon in the hands of the bureaucracy to prevent her emancipation?
The Sardar Sahab was on of the three delegates elected by the Canadian Sikhs on February 22nd, 1913, to go to the Congress and represent their grievances.
Mr. Krishna Kumar Mitra seconded, remarking that it would be better for Canadians to say openly that they would not admit Indians rather than pass sp cowardly a law. Mr. Ayub Khan and Pandit Rambhuj Dutt Choudhri supported, and the Resolution was carried.
Resolution VII was on the Public Service Commission, and as very full, laying down the grievances under which Indians suffered and suggesting changes. It was moved by Rai Baikhunthanath Sen Bahadur, who remarked on the charges leveled by witness before the Royal Commission against Indians; it was said they had defects in moral character, and were lacking in physical in physical endurance, administrative efficiency and power of initiative. He brought in rebuttal the districts in East Bangal where there was anarchical disturbances, and while those managed by British Civilians were kept quiet. He asked for the cases where Indians had failed. Witness from English commercial houses naturally preferred their own kith and kin and depreciated Indians.
The Hon. De. Nilratan Sarkar seconded, and took the sound ground that Indians had a birthright to serve their own country, and that non-Indians should be admitted only hen necessary and for a short time. But in the Public Services,” the upper branch is synonymous with Europeans, and the lower with Indian. This is as indefensible in principle as it is mischievous in practice.” “We are to remain content as a Nation of assistants.” He illustrated Indian efficiency with various examples, and remarked that Dr. Pal Roy had no equal in India, “but he is to remain all his life in the Provincial inferior Service”. Messrs. V. V. Jogiah Pantulu and Mathradas Ramchand supported the Resolution and it was carried.
Mr. Bhupendranath Basu moved Resolution VIII, asking for the repeal of the Press Act. He pointed out that in 1837, Sir Charles Metcalfe had liberated the Indian Press; Lord Lytton replaced fetters in 1878 with his Vernaculara Press Act, but Mr. Gladstone replaced it. When Sir Herbert Risley spoke in 1910 in favour of introducing the present Press Act, he had destroyed several papers, such as the Gugantar, and had said that in the 47 cases instituted by Government under the old law of sedition, a conviction had been secured in every one. What more did they want? The Law Member, ho certainly believed what he said, had laid stress on the right of appeal to the High Court, but in a late case the High Court had said that a forfeiture was invalid and illegal, but the High Court had no power to interfere. So there was “a special la of a very drastic nature without any safeguards,” and it was “a wet cloth on all expressions of public opinion“.
“Situated as the Government of India is, foreign in its composition and aloof in its character, that law is the source of great peril.” Mr. Dalvi, seconding, quoted Sir L. Jenkins, the Chief Justice, in the Comrade case, who said that it is difficult to see to what lengths the operation of these sections may not be plausibly extended by an ingenious mind.
Mr. J. Choudhuri, supporting, gave his own case as editor of a legal journal, the Calcutta Weekly Notes. His printer and publisher died, and he had to find a new one, and was running backwards and forwards between his office and the Presidency Magistrate’s Court before his declaration was accepted. The C.I.D could find nothing against the printer, except that his knowledge of English was not as perfect as perfect as it might be! Sir Herbert Risley had said that the Press Act would not affect existing papers, and that the administration of law would not be in the hands of the Police. Both assurances were false. When a declaration is made, the magistrate hands over the papers to the C.I.D, and the Habul Matin, an Existing paper, was called on to furnished security.
Mr. Kishindas Jhamrai supposed the Resolution, and it was carried.
Resolution IX, on the Permanent Settlement, was moved by the Hon. A.S. Krishna Rao, seconded by Rao Bahadur Hiranand Khemsing, supported by Mr. Mathradas Ramchand, and carried.
Then followed a series of Resolution, put from the chair: X, Army Commission ; XI, Education (including a protest against the veto by the Government of India of thee lecturers, Messrs. Rasul, Subrvardi and Jayasal, on the ground of their connection with politics); XII, High Courts; XIII, Swadeshi; XIV, Indentued Labour; XV, Local self-Government, XVI, Council regulation; XVII, Executive Councils for U.P and Punjab; XVIII, authorizing the All-India Congress Committee to arrange a deputation to England, to represent Indian views on: (1) Indians in S.Africa and the colonies; (2) Press Act; (3) Reform of the India Council: (4) Separation; XIX, Thanks to Sir William Wedderburn and members of the British Committee. These Resolutions, put seriatim, were really our old friend the Omnibus.
Resolution XX, was an expression of deep regret at the retirement of Messrs. Wacha and Khare, from the office of Secretaries, and thanks for their work. Rai Baikunthanath Sen Bahadur voiced the gratitude of the Congress to the eminent veteran, who had acted for 18 years, with great self-denial and ability. Mr. Khare had worked well for 6 years. Mr. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar seconded, saying that the greatness of the Congress was largely due to the Secretaries. The Resolution was carried with cheers, and then the Hon. Mr. Harchandrai Vichindas proposed and Mr D. G. Dalvi seconded the election of the Hon. Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur and Mr. N. Subha Rao Pantulu as General Secretaries for the ensuring years. Carried.
Mr. N. Subha Rao invited the Congress to Madras, and Resolution XXII decided the acceptance.
The vote of thanks to the Chair was moved by Mr. Ghulamali G. Chayla, seconded by Mr. Bhupendranath Basu, supported by Mr. Lakamal Chellaram and Mir Ayab Khan, and carried by acclamation. The President’s brief reply closed the proceeding, and the Twenty-eighth National Congress dissolved.
I. Resolution-That this Congress desires to place on record its sense of the great loss sustained by the country by the death of Mr. J. Ghosal, who was a staunch worker in the Congress cause, and Mr. Justice P. R. Sundara Aiyer.
Indians in South Africa and Canada
II. Resolved-(a) That this Congress enters its emphatic protest against the provisions of the Immigration Act in that they violet the promises made my Ministers of the South Africans Union, and respectfully urges the Crown to veto the Act and requests the Imperial and Indian Governments to adopt such measures as would ensure to the Indians in South Africa just and honourable treatment.
(b) That this Congress expresses its abhorrence of the cruel treatment to which Indians were subjected in Natal in the recent strikes, and entirely disapproves of the personnel of the Committee appointed by the South African Union to acquire into the matter, as two of its members are already known to be biased against confidence of Indians in South Africa and here.
(c) That this Congress tenders its most respectful thanks to His Excellence the Viceroy for his statesmanlike pronounce of the policy of the Government of India on the South African questions.
(d) That this Congress requests to Imperial and Indian Governments to take the steps needed to redress the grievance relating to the questions of the $3 tax, indentured labour, domicile, the Educational test, validity of Indian Marriages, and other questions bearing on the status of Indians in South Africa.
(e) That this Congress expresses its warm and grateful appreciation of the heroic struggle carried on by Mr. Gandhi and his co-workers, and calls upon the people of this country of all classes and creeds to continue to supply them with funds.
VI. Resolved-That this Congress strongly protests against prohibition of immigration, resulting from operation of the Canadian Privy Council Order No. 920, generally known as the “Continuous Journey Clause, ” as the order in question has practically the effect of preventing any Indian, not already settled there, from going to Canada, inasmuch as there is no direct steamship service between the two Countries, and the steamship companies refuse through booking, and further subjects the present Indian Settlers in Canada to great hardship by precluding them from bringing over their wives and children. This Congress, therefore, urges upon the Imperial Government the necessity of securing the repeal of the said Continuous Journey Regulation.
Separation of Judicial and Executive Functions
III. Resolved-That this Congress, concurring with previous Congresses, urges the early Separation the Judicial from Executive Functions in the best interests of the Empire and prays that any scheme of Separation that may be undertaken to be really effective must place all judiciary solely under the control of the highest Court in every Province.
XI. Resolved-That this Congress is strongly of opinion that all the High Courts of India, Inclusive of non-chartered High Courts, should have the same direct relation with the Government of India alone, as the High Court of Fort William in Bengal has at the present time. The Congress is, further, of opinion that the
Chief Judge of unchartered High Courts should be appointed from the members of the bar.
[See VII c,3.]
Union for Self-Government of Congress and Muslim League
IV. Resolved-That this Congress places on record its warm appreciation of the adoption by the All-India Muslim League of the ideal of Self-Government for India within the British Empire, and expresses its complete accord with the belief that the league has so emphatically declared at its last sessions that the political future of the country depends on the harmonious working and co-operation of the various Communities in the country which has been the cherished ideal of the Congress. This Congress most heartily welcomes the hope expressed by the league that the leaders of the different communities will make every Endeavour to find a modus operandi for joint and concreted action on the questions of national good and earnestly appeals to all the sections of the people to help the object we all have at heart.
India Council Reform
V. Resolved-That this Congress is of opinion that the Council of the Secretary of State of India, as a present constituted, should be abolished, and ,makes the following suggestions for its reconstructions:
(a) That the salary of the Secretary State of India should be placed on the English Estimates.
(b) That with the view to the efficiency and independence of the Council, it is expedient that it should be partly nominated and party elected.
(c) That the total number of members of the Council should not be less than nine.
(d) That the elected portion of the Council should consist of not less than one-third of the total number of members, who should be non-official Indians chosen by the constituency consisting of the elected members of the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils.
(e) That not less than one-half of the nominated portion of the Council should consist of public men of merit and ability unconnected with the Indian administration.
(f) That the remaining portion of the nominated Council should consist of official who have served in India for not less than 10 years and have not been away from India for more than two years.
(g) That the character of the Council should be advisory and not administration.
(h) That the term of office of each member should be five years.
VII. Resolved—(a) That this Congress place on record its indignant protest against, and emphatically repudiates, as utterly unfounded, the charges of general incompetence, lack of initiative, lack of character, etc., which some of the witness, among whom this congress notices with regret some of the highest administrative officers, have freely leveled at Indians as a people.
(b) That this Congress begs to express its earnest hope that the Royal Commissioners will, alike on grounds of justice, national progress, economy, efficiency and even expediency, see fit to make recommendations which will have the certain effect of largely increasing the present very inadequate proportion of Indians in the high appointments in the Public Services of their own country; thus redeeming the solemn pledge contained in the Character Act of 1833 and the Royal Proclamation of 1858.
(c) In particular, this Congress places on record its deep conviction:
(1) That justice can never be done to the claim of the people of this country unless the examinations for the recruitment of the superior offices of the various Services be held in India as well as in England ;
(2) That the age limit in the case of candidates for the Indian Civil Service should not be lowered, as such a step will operate to the disadvantage of Indian candidates as well as prove detrimental to efficiency ;
(3) That the Judicial and Executive Services and Functions should be completely separated and the Judicial Services recruited from the legal profession and placed in subordination to the High Court instead of to the Executive Government ;
(4) That such restrictions as exist at present against the appointment of persons other than members of the Indian Civil Service to certain high offices be removed ;
(5) That any rule or order which, in terms or in effect, operates as a bar against the appointment of Indian as such to any office under the Crown for which the may otherwise be eligible, should be rescinded as opposed to the Act and the Proclamation hereinbefore mentioned ;
(6) That the division of Services into Imperial and Provincial be abolished and the conditions of Services be equalized as between Indians and Europeans, and that in case the division be maintained, the recruitment of the Executive branch of the Provincial Civil Service be made by means of an open competitive examination instead of by nomination ;
(7) That in case the said division be maintained, the Indian Educational and other Services be recruited in India as well as England, and Indians of the requisite attainments be appointed thereto both directly and by promotion from the respective Provincial Services ;
(8) That civil medical posts should not be filled by the appointment of members of the Military I.M.S or I.S.M.D., and a distinct and separate Indian Civil Medical Service should be constituted therefore and recruited by means of a competitive examination held in India as well as England ; educational and scientific appointments, however, being filled by advertisement in India and abroad ;
(9) That the present scale of salaries is sufficiently high and should not be raised, and further, that exchange compensation allowance should be abolished, as it has been a costly anomaly since exchange was fixed by statute ; and
(10) That the people of those dominions of the Crown, where they are not accorded the rights of British citizens should be declared ineligible for appointments in India.
VII. Resolved-That this Congress reiterates its protest against the continuation of the Indian Press Acton the Statute Book, and urges that the same be repealed, specially, in view of the recent decision of the High Court of Calcutta, which declares that the safeguards provided by the Act are illusory and incapable of being enforced.
IX. Resolved-That this Congress is strongly of opinion that a reasonable and definite limitation to the demand of the State on land and a introduction of a permanent Settlement directly between Government and Land-holders in ryotwari-areas or a settlement for a period of not less than 60 years in those Provinces where shorter periodical settlement revision prevail will substantially help in ameliorating the present unsatisfactory conditions of the Agricultural population.
X. Resolved-That this Congress again respectfully points out to the Government of the India the injustice of keeping the higher ranks in the Army closed against the people of this country, and urges that the same should remain no longer unredressed.
[And see VII c.S]
XI. Resolved-(a)That this Congress, while thanking the Government of India for its donation of larger grants towards the extension of Primary Education in India, is of opinion that a beginning should now be made for introducing Free and Compulsory Education in some selected areas.
(b) That the Congress, while approving of Proposals by Government for introducing teaching and residential Universities, is strongly of opinion that that system should be supplement, and not replace, the existing system of University Education among the poorer classes will be seriously retarded.
(c) That this Congress reiterates its prayer to Government to make adequate provision for imparting Industrial and Technical Education in different Provinces, having regard to the local requirements.
(d) That this Congress records the strong protest against the action of the Government of India vetoing the selection by the Calcutta University of Messrs. Rasul, Suhravardi and Jayaswal, as the Lectures on the ground of their connection with politics; as the bar of politics is so general as to lend it self to arbitrary exclusion of the best scholarship from the lecturer’s chair, so detrimental to the interest of Education in the country.
XIII. Resolved-That this Congress accords its most cordial support to the Swadeshi Movement, and calls upon the people of India to Labour for its success, by making earnest and sustained efforts to promote the growth of indigenous industries by giving preference, wherever practicalable, to Indian products over imported commodities, even at a sacrifice.
XIV. Resolved-That owing to the scarcity of labour in India, and the grave results from the system of Indentured Labour, which reduces the Labourers, during the period of their indenture, practically to the position of slaves, this Congress strongly urges the total prohibition of recruitment of labour under indenture, either for work in India or elsewhere.
XV. Resolved-That this Congress expresses its regret that the recommendations of the Decentralization Commission, with regard to the further development of Local Self-Government, have not yet been given effect to, and urges that the Government of India may be pleased to take steps, without delay, to increase the powers and resources of Local Bodies.
XVI. Resolved-That this Congress records its sense of keen disappointment that at the last revision of the Legislative Council Regulations, the anomalies and inequalities, rectification of which the four previous Congress strongly urged upon the Government, were not removed. And in order to allay the widespread dissatisfaction caused by the defects complained of, and in vies of the experience of last four years, this Congress earnestly pays that-
(1) there should be a non-official majority in the Imperial Legislative Council;
(2) there should be a majority of elected members in all Provincial Council;
(3) the system of voting for delegates be done away with, where it still exists;
(4) the franchise be broadened by simplifying the qualifications of the electors, basing it on education, property or income’
(5) the Government should not have the power arbitrarily to declare any person ineligible for election on the ground of his antecedents or reputations;
(6) no person should be held ineligible for election on the ground of dismissal from Government Service, or of conviction in a criminal court or from whom security for keeping the peace has been taken, unless his conduct involved moral turpitude;
(7) no property or residential qualification should be required of a candidate, nor service as member of a local body;
(8) a person ignorant of English should be held ineligible for membership;
(9) it should be expressly laid down officials should not be allowed to influence elections in any way;
(10) Finance committees of Provincial Councils should be more closely associated with Government in the preparation of Annual Financial Statements;
(11) there should be finance committee of the Imperial Legislative Council as in the case of Provincial Legislative Councils;
(12) the right of putting supplementary questions should be extended to all members and not to be restricted to the member putting the original question;
(13) the strength of the Punjab Council be raised from 26 to 50, and more adequate representation be allowed to the Punjab in the Imperial Council.
As further, this Congress, while recognizing the necessity of providing for a fair and adequate representation in the Legislative Councils for the Muhammadans or the other communities where they are in a minority, disapproves of the present regulations to carry out this object by means of separate electorates.
XVII. Resolved- That the Congress that urges that an Executive Council, with an Indian member, be established in the United Provinces at any early date, and is of opinion, that a similar Council should be established in Punjab too.
Deputation to England
XVIII. Resolved- That the All-India Congress Committee be authorized to arrange for a Deputation, consisting as far as possible, of representatives from different Province, to England, to represent Indian views on the following subjects:
(1) Indian in South Africa and other Colonies;
(2) Press Act;
(3) Reform of the Indian Council;
(4) Separation of Judicial and Executive Functions;
(5) And important questions on which Congress have expressed opinion.
Thanks of Congress
XIX. Resolved- That this Congress record its sense of high appreciation of the services of Sir William Wedderburn and other members of British Committee, and resolves that the organization of British Committee and India should be maintained.
[See II c, XI a, XX]
Retirement of General Secretaries
XX. Resolved- That this Congress expressed its sense of deep regret at the retirement of Mr. D. E. Wacha and Mr. D. A. Kahre, from the office of its General Secretaries, and begs to place on record its sense of warm appreciation of the very signal and distinguished Services under rendered by the former for 18 years, and the latter for 6 years, to the cause of the Congress.
XXI. Resolved- That the Hon. Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur and Mr. N. Subba Rao Pantulu be appointed General, Secretaries for the next year.
XXII. Resolved- That the Congress of the year 1914 be held in the Province of Madras.
The material/data/information can be provided on request.