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THE ROLE OF SINDH PRESS

 

[The role of sindhi press as seen and reported by the government of sindh. the information has been obtained from government reports and their reference has been given at the end of every entry. Dr. Pathan]

Part One  

1. Agitation in connection with the proposed enhancement of land revenue in the Barrage area is being carried on also in the local press and by members of the local legislature with a view to bring the matter before the Assembly. [ Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th May 1937 Fortnightly report for the first half on May 1937].

2. It is understood that an appeal has been filed in the High Court against the order of security demanded by the local Government from the keeper of the Al-Wahid Press. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th May 1937 Fortnightly report for the first half on May 1937].

3. An event of considerable interest, and possibly political significance, is the reported passing of the proprietorship of the "Daily Gazette", a local Anglo-Indian paper, into Indian hands, Ever since its inception in the year 1880, the paper has been the organ of the Anglo-Indian and European communities. In recent years its financial position has not been very satisfactory and of late there have been rumours that it was for sale. The last Annual Report of the Company showed a loss of Rs.90,000 on the year's working, and this seems to have precipitated matters. Sir Montagu de P.Webb. who owns the controlling interest, is now reported to have sold it to Khan Bahadur K. H Katrak, who proposes to constitutes a Board of Indian, Directors, although, presumably , he will retain the controlling interest in his own hands. It is understood that the policy of the paper will be pro-Government and definitely anti-Congress. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/38, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 3rd February 1938 Fortnightly report for the Second half on January 1938].

4. In a leading article under the caption "The Great Betrayal" the 'Sind Observer' an English daily of Karachi, comments on the Anglo-Italian agreement as follows:-

"Mr. Neville Chamberlain the son of Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, has made the gift of a kingdom to the Italian Dictator, seeking out security for Britain. To-day the nation of Europe are building the palace over the bones of an independent Ethiopia. To-day in the dismemberment of Ethiopia, Britain is playing a leading role. The betrayal of the Negus is complete." [Source No. P-25-h(s)/38, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 18th May 1938 Fortnightly report for the First half of May1938].

5.  In an article under caption the pro-Jewish policy of the British and "God's wrath will befall both" a Vernacular paper "Islah" of Karachi comments on the Palestine Affairs as follows:-

" The degraded mentality of the Jews is clearly exposed by verses in the Holy Quran. These verses are as true today as they were when composed. The Germans and Turks have turned these ill-begotten and treacherous Jews out of their countries. It is only the British who are supporting this cursed nation in settling down in Palestine, the country which is loved by Moslems. The Jews, previous to this, had ever been attempting to bring about the downfall of the Government which helped them, and it is hoped that the British also will soon taste the poison of this venomous nation. God's wrath even before the display of Jewish treachery, was falling on the British. Japan, which is about the size of Sind, is making unprovoked attacks on British ships, but the British are degrading themselves before this mean Government. Italy by taking Abyssinia, has created a permanent danger to the Suez Canal, but the British, like indolent and degraded people, are keeping mum. Are these not clear signs of being cursed by God. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/38, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 10th June 1938 Fortnightly report for the Second half of May1938].

6. The passage of the Recruitment Bill in the Central Assembly was adversely criticised in the Press, alleging that the adoption of the Bill was a clear injustice to India, and characterising it as a 'black law' enacted by the Assembly "at a time when the heavens, with their thousands of eyes, had never before witnessed the extent to which the Arabs of Palestine had fallen a prey to the bullets of the British and jews". British rule is referred to as a " calamity of nature" which had ruined not only the Moslems, but also their religion. In an article under the caption "The Recruitment Bill," the Sind Observer" of Karachi comments on the passing of the Bill as follows:-

 " We assure the Government of India that any sort of Zaburdasti will not work next time. India is sufficiently awakened to obstruct every British preparation to use its resources in men, money and munitions from being sent abroad on account of the bitter lessons of the of the lat war. The India of to-day is not the docile and submissive India which her ruler knew her to be twenty or-even eight years ago. The iron has entered her soul and she is longing to be as free as Englishmen are in their own country. It is therefore an utterly suicidal policy to create suspicions by introduction such Bills that Imperialism is looking far ahead and has started forging fetters for the feet of India much in advance of any world war"[Source No. P-25-h(s)/38, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 16th September 1938 Fortnightly report for the First Half of September 1938].

7.In an article under the caption “Nerveless and Spineless British Policy”, the daily ‘Sind Observer’ of Karachi condemns the foreign policy of His Majesty’s Government as Follows:-

“Mr. David LIoyd George rightly attacked the nerveless and the spineless policy of the present British Government with regard to Spain. Never did British prestige fall so low and never did the name of Britain become such a bye-word for ridicule in the countries of Europe and the world. The policy of the British Government towards Spain is thoroughly discredited because it has not been successful…… What was at one time taken to be a great diplomatic triumph in the international sphere for Mr. Neville Chamberlain, namely the Anglo-Italian agreement, has proved itself to be a mirage.” [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19 July 1938 Fortnightly report for the first half of July 1938].

 

8. As mentioned earlier in this report, the decision of the British Government to come to the aid of Poland was universally welcomed by the Press but India's co-operation with British was supported only with reservations. England was exhorted to give India complete independence when only she would receive the full loyal support of the Indian nation. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 2nd October February  1939 Fortnightly report for the Second half of August/First half of September 1939]. 

 

9. The international situation in Europe has afforded the Press ample opportunity for speculating on the possibilities of a major war and the general trend of feeling is that European conflagration is inevitable in the not too distant future. The visit of Their Majesties to Canada, in spite of the tense atmosphere prevailing in Europe, is viewed by the more sober element as a happy augury denoting unlikelihood of an immediate outbreak. The smaller fry and the extremist section of the Press have, however not been slow in taking advantage of the European turmoil for adversely criticising the policy followed by His Majesty's Government in connection with events on the Continent. The view has been expressed that England is afraid to face Hitler and Germany and that because of this policy " not a single German blow will be vain", a change of Ministry and a revision of foreign policy have been advocated if British wished "to regain her lost prestige in the world". One paper remarks that Hitler is justified in asking why the British are keeping so many countries under subjugation and that Germany is now using the same tactics which the British used in the past to spread their Empire. The present state of unemployment and the alleged deterioration in the condition of the peasantry in India are said to be due to British aversion from giving full responsibility to India, and England is exhorted to give independence to all her subject countries if she desires peace and is earnest in avoiding a 'devastating' war. The paper concludes with the question: "Who will trust the advice of Britain so long as she continues to keep her hold on her own Empire and, at the same time, requires others not to expand their Empires?" .[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 17th May 1939 Fortnightly report for the Second half of April  1939].

 

10. Comments on India's attitude in the event of a war continued to be a feature of discussion in certain sections of the press which continued to advocate Indian neutrality in any future wars engaged in by the British. His Majesty's Government are also warned not to make any attempt to get help from Baluchistan, where an " autocratic form of Government" is said to exist still, " as such an attempt may create a situation similar to that which the Maris created during the Great War". American films are accused of anti-Indian propaganda and American are alleged to have "mentally and sentimentally aligned themselves against India" to be using the vast propaganda machinery which they possess in the shape of their widely circulated journals and films to malign and vilify this ancient and innocent country". "The great Republic " , remarks one paper, " appears to be anxious to canvass support for its ally the British by pointing out to the world that but for British bayonets and bureaucrats India would be a lawless land where lust and avarice would stalk hand in hand and where might would be the only right". The Government of India and the Indian National Congress are urged "to study the problem in all its details and take effective measures to terminate the malicious campaign forthwith". [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 17th July 1939 Fortnightly report for the First half of July 1939].

 

11. The Tientsin blockade by the Japanese is regarded as "the greatest humiliation even heaped on a proud nation like the British" and is attributed to the Prime Minister of England" whose policy has been leading his country from one disaster to another, form one humiliation to another, form one outrage to another without himself being able to say with the voice of whole empire 'thus far and no further ;". Imperialism, whether of the East or the West, is condemned as being responsible for many atrocities and it is felt that Japan's day of reckoning for 'her sins in china' would come soon "if only the Old Man of Munich ceases to be the Prime Minister of England". Certain measures contemplated in South Africa, Burma and China, aftecting Indians and Indian labour, have met with a stormy reception in the Press and have been criticised as making it "impossible for Indians to live there with any self-respect" and the Government of India have been urged" to bring those countries to their knees" by an economic boycott. . [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 11th July 1939 Fortnightly report for the Second half of June 1939].

 

12. There was a certain amount of speculation as to the ultimate outcome of the trouble in the far East, the indignities inflicred by the Japanese on British subjects were generally regarded with barely concealed satisfaction as an indication that British power in that region was on the wane and a suggestion was made that Britain had two course open to her - either economic retaliation or the abandonment of her interests in China. The extremist section regards the Japanese outrages as " the revenging hand of Nature, stretched forth to avenge all tyrannies and obstinacies". In an article under the caption 'British Election Prospects', the Sind Observer' of Karachi comments on the probable result of the forthcoming elections in England in the following strain: "The mass of the British people want peace, peace at any price peace at the cost of honour even, want peace with all their hearts, want it so fervently that will vote for Chamberlain and security at the next election rather than for erratic geniuses of the type of Eden or Churchill who have consistently refused to shake-hands with murder and have preserved at least an iota of the strength of sturdy British people, who have in the past defended their island home against the might of the biggest continental powers".[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 2nd August1939 Fortnightly report for the Second half of July 1939].

 

13. The Press has been behaving on the whole quite creditably except for the Congress newspapers which time and again express the view that the war is an opportunity to force the British nation to adopt a favourable attitude to the Indian problem from the Congress viewpoint. It has further been pressed that the solution should include "Indian India" also. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th October 1939 Fortnightly report for the Second half of September 1939].  

14. Feeling on account of the Sukkur Manzilgah affair continued to be fostered by foul propaganda in the press. An anti-British tone is also apparent in some newspapers. The Provincial Press Adviser warned several newspapers for publishing matters contravening the provisions of the various press notices. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 17th October 1939 Fortnightly report for the First half of October 1939]. 

15. Government have been approached from several quarters for an early decision regarding the Manzilgah buildings alleged to be a mosque and rest-house at Sukkur. Government desire to say that this question is receiving their consideration, and that the matter will be disposed of, as soon as may be, on a consideration, strictly, of merits of the case.

Government understand that it is proposed to stage a 'satyagraha' form the 1st October 1939, with a view to securing the transfer of the Manzilgah to the Muslims. Government need hardly emphasize that a matter of such controversy, as the disposal of the Manzilgah, should be decided in a cal atmosphere and on a dispassionate consideration of what every party interested in the matter has got to say.

It is, therefore, the considered opinion of Government that it is in the interest of everyone concerned that the leaders of the Muslim community interests in this question should not launch 'satyagraha', but should wait for the decision of Government. And Government request all concerned in the matter to create that atmosphere which is necessary for the consideration and disposal of a matter of this import. Feeling on account of the Sukkur Manzilgah affair continued to be fostered by foul propaganda in the press. An anti-British tone is also apparent in some newspapers. The Provincial Press Adviser warned several newspapers for publishing matters contravening the provisions of the various press notices. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 17th October 1939 Fortnightly report for the First half of October 1939]. 

16. The Press has been full of His Excellency the Viceroy's statement and comments generally are unfavourable. The "Sind Observed" says that the mountain in labour has produced a mouse. It goes on to say that the door has been banged, barred and bolted against the Congress, and that the Viceregal statement is a challenge to the Congress to withdraw its eight ministries from the Provinces and enter on a campaign of non-co-operation to meet which the Government of India is probably ready. Another paper says that the only course left for Congress is to chalk out a gigantic programme for the country and give three months to the British Government to consider India's demands for independence, failing which there will be no alternative but to start a war of independence. Another paper says that "oppressed and unfortunate Indians look with tearfilled eyes towards the Congress to give them a lead. India should stand united and accept the challenge of the Viceroy." [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 3rd November 1939 Fortnightly report for the Second half of October 1939].

17. The vilification of the policy of the Sindh Government continues from Lahore. The "Ehsan" and "Inqilab" continue to publish obectionable and exaggerated accounts of the Sukkur Manzilgah disturbances. The " Zamindar" strongly criticizes the Sind Premier, and blames him and the Hindus for the disturbances. Objectionable posters are also received from Lahore. The "Inqilab" of Lahore, dated the 1st December, has published a statement by Sayed Ali Muhammad Rashid condemning the Sind Ministry for the alleged oppression of the Muslims involved in the Manzilgh agitation, accusing Hindus of having delivered provocative speeches at the Sind Hindu Conference, held at Sukkur just previously, and requesting. His Excellency the Governor of Sindh to dissolve the Sind Legislative Assembly and order fresh elections. The "Shahbaz" of Lahore, dated the 1st December, has published resolutions passed at a Muslim League meeting at Peshawar condemning the Sind Ministry for the communal disturbances at Sukkur, The "Ehsan" and "Shahbaz" of 2nd December contain resolutions passed at Muslim meetings at Quetta condemning the Sind Ministry for its alleged anti-Muslim policy and demanding the restroration of the Manzilgah. The "Sind Observed", dated 1st December has taken objection to this Punjab Muslim Press propaganda. The "Al-Islam" (Martyrs' Issue) of Quetta dated 1st December, contains articles in a communal strain on the same subject. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 22nd December 1939 Fortnightly report for the First half of December 1939].

18. A pamphlet entitled, "Why Bloodshed in Sind" by Sayed Ali Muhammad Rashid, printed at Lahore, has come to notice. It reviews Sind affairs from the Muslim League point of view and criticising the present Ministry, alleges that the bloodshed and lawlessness which occurred on the Sukkur Manzilgah question was due to the fact that present Ministry were afraid of losing their Hindu following. The pamphlet further alleges that the Ministry is in the custody and at the mercy of the Hindu party. On account of its bitter tone and misrepresentation of facts, all copies of the pamphlet have been forfeited to His Majesty under the press Act. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 22nd December 1939 Fortnightly report for the First half of December 1939].

19. Events in Europe and the Far East received their due share of prominence in the Press. England is said to be fast losing her influence on the Continent, and it is felt that so long as the English are not prepared to fight, the British Empire cannot escape the fate of the past. British policy in India is regarded as short-sighted and British is exhorted to change it and adopt a more liberal attitude, when "the British would have in Indians partners and allies, who by themselves would constitute a power strong enough to defy all enemies of the British" One paper remarks as follows: "Blinded by race prejudice and mad superiority complex the British policy has been shaped in a style that has only gone to cultivate a positive disappointment among Indians and the proverbial veracity of an Englishman's word has come to be questioned. Even today if the British were to make a friendly gesture, India would stand by them in the great ordeal ahead of them. Will they be wise enough not to spurn such valuable friendship?" "[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 30th  June 1939 Report on the political situation for May/June 15th.   

20. The press during fortnight has been very quiet in regard to the Manzilgah issue and its offshoots, primarily because of pre-censorship. This censorship will have to continue so long as the Manzilgah remains a live issue, as it is certain that if it is removed, the most exaggerated accounts of the Sukkur riots will be published and communal feeling will be again stirred up. Propaganda by both Hindu and Muslims in the press outside Sind continues. For instance, that "Star of India" of Calcutta contains exaggerated reports of the Sukkur riots. The "Inqilab" of Lahore, dated the 15th December and the "Ihsan" of Lahore of the same date contain articles on the subject. The latter newspaper appeals to Muslim lawyers to volunteer their services free of charge to defend Muslims involved in the Sukkur riot cases. The "Al-Islam" of Quetta published an objectionable article under the captain: "Eye Witness" Account of the Sukkur Manzilgah Mosque". In this article it is sought to prove that there was a pre-arranged conspiracy on the part of Hindus to massacre Muslims, that shorts were a pre-arranged conspiracy on the part of Hindus to massacre Muslims, that shots were fired by the Hindus who were sitting on house tops well-equipped with two thousand guns, that firing took place on Sadh Bella island resulting in the death of many Muslim boatmen, that two hundred armed Hindu set fire to several Muslim shops, that whereas the Hindu at Sukkur were in possession of two thousand guns the Muslims had none, and that in the riot cases which were now being filed the Hindu were not touched, but the Muslims were victimised. The "Inqilab" of Lahore, dated the 19th December, appeals to Muslims to overthrow the present Ministry. . [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 13th January 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of December 1939].

21. The " Hindvasi" of Karachi contains an article comparing conditions in Russian before and after the revolution. The writer eulogizes socialism and compares the present state of India with that of Russian before the revolution, which brought so much good to that country. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 18th January 1940 Fortnightly report for the First half of January 1940].

22. The local newspapers continue to deplore the existence of press censorship on news pertaining to the Sukkur riots and the Manzilgah issue. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 18th January 1940 Fortnightly report for the First half of January 1940].

23. In view of the approaching session of the Sind Legislative Assembly, who have been summoned for 26th of January, violent anti-Ministry propaganda has begun in the press - particularly noteworthy newspapers in this connection are the "Sind Observer" and the "Karachi Daily". The "Sind Observer" of the 13th January contains a leading article of three columns bitterly criticising the Ministry on the Manzilgah issue, and saying that it has failed to maintain law and order and should resign. The same paper contain a four column editorial in its issue of 12th January giving prominence to "Fourteen Points" which have been put forward professedly on behalf of the Sind Hindu party as the price of its support to the Ministry. These points cover the whole sphere of administration in the Province, demanding adequate representation of the Hindus in the police and other services, etc., as well as a reference of the Manzilgah dispute to a tribunal. They also demand the transfer of the Collector of Sukkur - a request which is as unreasonable in the making as it would be unwise to grant it, as the officer concerned happens to belong to neither of the two communities involved in the dispute, and has carried out his duties with admirable vigour and impartiality throughout a very trying experience. Since no session of the Assembly has been held since June of last year, the press devotes much space to the activities of the various parties maneuvering for position, and particularly to speculation as to the attitude of the local Congress party, whose representatives have been summoned to Wardha to receive instructions from the "High Command" on the subject. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 18th January 1940 Fortnightly report for the First half of January 1940].

24. At a meeting of the Hindu Sabha, Hyderabad, a resolution was passed sympathizing with the editor of the “Sansar Samachar”, because of his prosecution under Section 153-A, Indian Penal Code, for writing an article which was intensely communal. The recent prosecutions have made the Journalists’ Association more active. The “Sansar Samachar”, dated 1st March 1940 appeals to Hindus for monetary help to defend the editor. A sum of Rs. 1o has been raised so far for his defend. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

  

  25. The “Sind Observer” writing under the head “Russia and Finland”, says that for weeks on end we have heard nothing through the Allied radio stations but accounts of the wonderful victories won by the Finns and defeats suffered by the Russians. It goes on to say that this highly coloured propaganda has done nothing but harm to the Finnish cause, as help to the Finns has taken the form of words through the either rather than war materials. The same newspaper in a leader on the “Ministerial Crises in Sind” observes that it is dangerous to allow a number of selfish M.L.As. To gamble with the fortunes of the province for their private ends, .[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

 

26. The “Qurbani”, dated 3rd March writing under the caption “A bugle for preparation for War
“, states that the decision of the Ramgarh Congress is being anxiously watched as it is likely that civil disobedience may be launched, which the British think will fail, but which they should bear in mind will succeed, in spite of internal dissensions in the Congress ranks. Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

 

27.The “Daily Sind News”, dated 12th March, requests His Excellency the Governor of Sind to remember his duty and accept the resignation of the Allah Bakhsh Ministry and take charge of the administration himself. The “Sansar Samachar” of 5th March congratulated the Hindu Independent Party for sitting in the Opposition benches and appealed to them to vote in favour of the rupee one cut motions to bring down the Ministry.(These motions were all withdraw). It goes on to say that the public should net celebrate Holi because the minds of Hindus are grieved at the atrocities perpetrated against them in Sukkur. The “Qurbani”, dated 10th March advocating the Suspension of the constitution, requests the Hindu M.L.As. to resign their seats which, it says, should be kept vacant, thus forcing His Excellency to suspend the constitution. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

 

28.Two more Newspapers, viz., the "Al -Wahid" and the "Qurbani" have been prosecuted for exciting communal bitterness under Section 153-A of the Indian Penal Code, in 5th March. No action was taken under the Indian Press.(Emergency Power) Act, 1931. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

 

29. An unauthorized bulletin the "Communist", dated the 20th February 1940, in Sindhi, said to be issued by the Sind Committee of the Communist Party in India, contains anti-British articles in which it is alleged that Indian men and material are being utilized for British warfare and for the purpose of maintaining the rights of England to rule the world, the slaves being made to fight for the protection of the enslavers and for enslaving other nations. It also alleges that much awakening has taken place at the present time among the Indian Army and refers to sacrifices made by the Garhwali sepoys at peshawar, who cheerfully accepted hardship and punishment, and refused to fire on Indians. It contains news regarding the alleged revolt of a Sikh regiment at Jhansi, where the soldiers are said to have deserted with their rifles, some being arrested and others being still at large. It also contains a report of a Military unit at Bombay refusing to perform duty at a jail. A third piece of "news" is that troops at Meerut have deserted in three lorries and have not yet been arrested. The object of the Communists, the paper says, is to intensify the fight for freedom and to shape it in such a manner that the Indian people should take the reins of Government into their own hands by smashing the machinery of Imperialism. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 4th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of February 1940].

30. The "Qurbani" has again criticised the Ministry for its conduct in the Sukkur Manzilgah affair. Other anti-Ministerial articles continue in the press. The "Al-wahid" also criticises, the Allah Bakhsh Ministry and holds it responsible for the Manzilgah trouble. The "Hindu" and the "Qurbani" in their issues of the 20th and 21st February respectively reproduce the resolution passed at the Working Committee of the All-India Hindu Mahasbha that a Sukkur Riots Day be observed throughout India on the 3rd March by holding meeting at which Government should be urged to punish the offenders. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 4th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of February 1940].

31. A local daily of Hyderabad, "Al-Kamal" takes exception to several passages in Dr.Rabindranath Tagore's novel "Gora" which has been recognized by Bombay University for the collegiate  course. The paper considers this book communal and atheistic and asks the Sind Muslims to agitate against it through the press and on the platform. Resolutions to this effect have already reached Goverment. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 4th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of February 1940].

32. The "Sind Observer" in an editorial entitled "The Breakdown" remarks that the Viceroy gives profuse promises for the future, but yields little for the present. Criticising the Federal constitution it says that under it any princeling can stand in the way of the political progress of India. Referring to the Viceroy's terms it says that these are all war-time promises. After the war is over the Congress will be asked to settle with the Muslim League and the Princes, while all the time these parties will be encouraged not to come to any understanding at all. The editor goes on to say that the full freedom of India will be decided by the world Peace Conference and not at the sweet will of British Tory Imperialists. Writing on “My Jinnah and the Viceroy", the same paper says that mo Indian troops should be sent to Palestine to hold the Arabs in subjection, adding that it is impossible to allow this country to be the war depot of British Imperialism and thus get a bad name in Asiatic and European countries. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 4th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of February 1940].

33. The "Congress" of Karachi, in a leader, entitled "What Gandhiji Says", reproduced the criticism of the Mahatma regarding the instructions issued about "bowing" at an investitures ceremony held by His Excellency the Governor of the United Provinces on the 16th February, calling it a humiliating ceremony. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 4th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of February 1940].

34. The Ministerial crisis arising from the defeat of Government over the Sind Marketing Bill was freely discussed by all sections of the press. The " Sansar Samachar" has an article on "Poverty in India" in which it states that it has been proved by facts and figures that British rule has brought poverty to India and that the object of Imperialism is to fleece the Country. The "Sind Tribunes" referring to the prevalence of lawlessness in Sukkur District suggests to His Excellency that if he does not deem it proper to suspends the constitution, he should at least take over the portfolio of Law and other from his Ministers. The "Qurbani", dated the 16th February, under the caption "Whither goes Jinnah?" states that from the day the Congress stopped negotiations with Mr. Jinnah, his head has been turned. It calls him a proved traitor and upholds the action of the Congress in ceasing to negotiate with him. The "Al-wahid" and "Sukkur Gazette", dated the 21st and 22nd February respectively, attribute the bomb explosion at Sukkur to the negligence of Government. The "Islah ", dated the 22nd February, on the other hand attributes it to the mischief of some Hindus of Sukkur, and urges Government to unearth the Conspiracy and to award and to award exemplary punishments to those irresponsible Hindu who are guilty of the bomb episode. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 4th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of February 1940].

35. The "Sind Observed", dated the 23rd February, writing on the "Altmark" incident criticize the action of His Majesty's Government in attacking the ship when under international law it was immune, and says that the incident cannot be justified except on the ground that whatever the British do is right or that "Necessity knows no law". A warning has been issued to the editor in regards to this article. The " Sansar Samachar" of the 23rd February in an anti-Ministerial article asks the Hindu M.L.As. not, to join the Allah Bakhsh Ministry alleging that the Muslim Ministers alleging that the Muslim Ministers had encouraged the 'satyagrahis' associated with the Manzilgah movement. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 4th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of February 1940].

36. The Caxton Hall tragedy has not aroused much comment, and certainly not the universal condemnation which might have been expected. The "Hindu", dated 15th March, condemns the incident and hopes that the British Government will not hold India responsible for it, assing that a respressive policy could not improve the present political situation in India. The Sind journalists. Association passed a resolution protesting against the action of the Sind Government in prosecuting the editor of the "Sansar Samachar". At a public meeting at Hyderabad, appeals were made for funds for the editor's defence up to the Privy Council a sum of Rs. 460-9-0 has so far been collected. .[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th April 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of March 1940].

 

37. The "Sansar Samachar" and "Jamhoor" of Karachi publish the life histories of Lenin and Satalin respectively. The "Congress" of Karachi contains a paragraph on "Nazi Leader's Nasty Attack on England" consisting of extracts from an article by Dr. Robert Ley in the "De Angriff" of Berlin, an English translation of which was published in the "Manchester Guardian". In this article the Englishman is accused of trading in Christianity and Christian love just as he trades in coffee, pepper, salt and herrings. It also states that English leadership has its origin in hypocritical welfare work. This newspaper also prints Herr Hitler's broadcast on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Nazi Party under the caption " Herr Hitler's Thunder Against Britain". The Publication of such articles under the guise of extracts appears to the disingenuous. The "Hindu" of Karachi in an article entitled: "The wave of Repression", remarks that the Defence of India Act, 1939, was promulgated by Government in order to crush anti-war propaganda and, therefore, it should not be enforced against the strikers in Bombay. The "Tomorrow" of Karachi has an article entitled: "Will they do it?" in which it is suggested that Mr. Gandhi is the greatest friend of Britain and that it would be only prudent on the part of the authorities to come to an immediate settlement with India's greatest man and Britain's greatest friend. "Mirpurkhas Gazette", dated 25th March has an article on "Slave countries of the British Empire", wherein it says that England is fleecing India, Burmah, Ceylon and other small countries, and will not set them free unless compelled to do so. The "Sansar Samachar" of 22nd March praises the policy of patience adopted by the Congress and says that the attitude of the Congress is a test for the British Government, who have failed to fulfill their promises hitherto. It advises Government to give a lead by meeting the demands of India and proving to the world that their boasts regarding democracy are genuine.[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th April 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of March 1940].

 

38. The "Qurbani" of 27th March criticses Mr. Jinnah's idea of dividing India, and says that the Congress is the only institution in India which is making sacrifices for the liberation of the country, while the Muslim League puts obstacles in its way. He accuses Mr. Jinnah of coming in the way of Hindus-Muslim unity and hopes that there will be an awakening among the Muslims, so that they may cease to respect him. The "Hindu", dated 29th March, observed that the Muslim League's resolution in favour of dividing the country into Hindu and Muslim India has been warmly received in British Imperialistic circles. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th April 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of March 1940].

 

40. The "Sind Observer" in a leader entitled " in a leaser entitled "Lord Linlithgow the Pastor of India", remarks: " The people of India have always paid every pie of the expenditure incurred in Great British's wars outside India, where Indian troops were sent. And they will pay for the new armies which, for aught we know, will also be sent abroad on the ground that the frontiers of India are at Singapore and Baravia on one side and the Cape of Good Hope and the Thames on the other. Such armies were also raised during the last war, but what did Indian get? There are not even a few hundreds of Indian officers in the army after twenty years after the close of the last war, whereas if there had been any sincerity on the part of the Powers-that-be, the Indian Army could have been officered fully by Indians themselves during that period. No doubt it is 'Bari Meharbani' on the part of the Government to say that untouchability has been abolished in the Indian Army, and that in future Indian officers will command and be absorbed by all the units of the new Indian Army. Many thanks for this mercy. But why does not the Government publish how many Indians have been give and are likely to be give ]n Commissions in the new army, which is going to cost India over twenty cores of rupees over and above the ordinary yearly expenditure of forty cores? And what chances have these Indian officers of being give permanent commissions after the war so that a national army mat be built up? After the war it is not difficult to disband new armies, as was the case after the last war, and send to India some of the demobilized troops from England in want of employment, and thus maintain the heavy proportion of the British garrison in India. What assurances is the Viceroy going to give to the people of India that all those old suspicious policies will be buried and will not be pursued after the war?" [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 10th July 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of June 1940].

 

41. The "Mahagujarat" in a leader remarks: "The British Government has entered the present war to protect the independence of minor countries but has forgotten India which is a large country. On the one hand, the British Government supports the independence of small states and on the other it is trampling down the independence of 35 cores of Indians, this attitude exposes British intentions. An arrangement is being made nowadays to get help from British Colonies and the slave countries to save the British Empire on which the sun never sets. The Government of India suggest that Civic Guards should be formed for the defence of India. Although the British Government has been spending three-fourths of the Indian treasury on the army for the last 200 years, yet it is clear from these suggestions that the Government has not done anything for the defence of India. India without her consent, has been declared a belligerent. The Indians put their demands before the British Government at the very beginning of the war, but about nine months have elapsed and yet these demands remain unconnected. The authorities considered it necessary to collect war materials but through that Indians would not help them. It appears that the Viceroy, as the result of these suspicions, has started the formation of Civic Guards. The view expressed by the Governor of Bombay while supporting the formation of Civic Guards fully corroborated this. The Government has lost its credit in the eyes of the public. If India's demands were conceded, the war plan could be changed and for this purpose, pressure should be brought on Governors and the Parliament. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 10th July 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of June 1940].

 

42. The "Hindu" under the caption "Sprinkling salt on the wounds of India" remarks that Mr. Amery, Secretary of State for India, in his broadcast speech had made an appeal to the British Empire for help against German aggression in order to save the independence of England. "Even the moderates would not be satisfied with what he has said in his speech regarding India....... Should everything be sacrificed for the freedom of England, but in the case of India should everything be sacrificed for the freedom of England, but in the case of India should we remains sitting with folded arms? Are Indians not to think of India's freedom? For this reason India should be given independence first and then only she will fight for the Freedom of others. By repeating the old excuse of communal bogey as a reason to withhold the grant of independence Mr. Amery has sprinkled salt on the wounds of India".[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 10th July 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of June 1940].

43. The "Millat" of Karachi in a leatherette, "Will the British go away from India? remarks that when the British are engaged in a crisis some people openly declare that the British will leave India. These are mere childish pranks. No conclusion can be drawn from the temporary victories gained by Germany. Germany overwhelmed several countries during the Great War, but in the end she was defeated. Providence is subjecting British to worries for a short while as reprisal for her past mistakes......It is desirable that the British should show repentance for their past actions and do justice to Muslims. This will lead them to success and will bring about Hitler's defeat. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 10th July 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of June 1940].

 

44. The " Sansar Samachar" under the caption "A Humble Appeal" suggests that a fund of Rs. 10 lakhs may be collected to engage ten thousand guards for safeguarding lives and properties of the Hindus of Sind. It further remarks that the relations between Hindus and Muslims in Sind used to be very cordial but since outsiders, like the Punjabis, have come and settled in Sind the relations between the communities have been strained. The paper appeals to the Sind Muslims not to communal leaders and to consider the Hindus as their brethren. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 10th July 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of June 1940].

 

45. Hitler's peace offer has not been taken seriously by any of the newspapers. The "Daily Gazette" commenting on it writes: "We have no hesitation in saying that not a single man, women or a child will bestow upon these offers the slightest attention because they do not deserve any. The reason is not far to seek. The Nazi leader has invariably acted the part of the proverbial elephant having one set of teeth to shown to the world and another with which to chew his food". Lard Halifax's reply to Hitler has been very favourably commented upon by the papers. The "Sind Observer" remarks: "The man of great weight and consequence has given the proper reply to the German Chancellor". Other papers take Lord Halifax's reply to show the determination of British to fight till victory is achieved. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th August 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of July 1940].

 

46. The decision of the British Government to close the Burmah road has been unpopular and is looked upon with misgivings. The "Sind Observer" regards it as a "trick of diplomacy" and thinks that the road will not be closed only for three months but forever. Other papers also regard this step to have been actuated by a desire on the part of England to placate Japan. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th August 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of July 1940].

 

47. The All-India Congress Committee's resolution at Poona is acclaimed as a wise step. The "Daily Gazette" remarks quaintly enough" the historian of the future will doubtless interpret interpret the Poona resolution as a reasoned burial of an unfortunate theory divorced from all practical politics" The "Sind Observer" remarks that the resolution is based on common sense, expediency and sagacity. It is an offer to Simla and Whitehall to accept the friendly co-operation of India. The "Qurbani" commenting on the resolution states that if the British Government turns down the demands of the Congress, the consequences will be very serious, for Jawaharlal will insist on direct action, Rajagopalacharya will support him and Moulana Azad will have to take the next step. The demand of the Hindu press to ban the proposed tour of Mr. Jinnah evoked a retort from "Al-wahid", which was of the opinion that the Sind Government should pay no heed to the demand for imposing restrictions on Mr. Jinnah's visit and dubbed the demand as a dangerous communal move adopted under the cover of nation alism. Other Muslim papers also regretted the attitude of the Hindu press in showing alarm at the proposed visit of Mr. Jinnah. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th August 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of July 1940].

     

48. Comments on Mr. Pamnani's murder occupied most of the space in the vernacular press. The Hindu papers appeal to His Excellency the Governor of Sind to assume special responsibilities for law and order. The "Qurbani" suggests that all the Hindu M.L.As. Should immediately resign their seats as a protest against the weak policy of Government. The "Sind Tribune" remarks that the Hindu leaders should now urge for the suspension of the constitution. The "Karachi Daily" opposes these demands and states that it would be in the interests of the Hindu community that the Congress M.L.As. should not resign, but should lend all support to the present ministry to put down lawlessness and to restore for law and other. Commenting on the decision the Congress M.L.As. not to overthrow the ministry for the time being, the "Daily Swaraj" remarks that the Congress party has made the right decision to help Government to restore respect for law and order. The paper also deprecates the idea of the dissolution of the Assembly or the taking over of the administration by His Excellency. It says "death is hundred time better than slavery". The entire press comments on the insecurity prevailing in Sind and the need for stringent measures. The "Hindu" states that Government should put aside the ordinary administration and concentrate on restoring peace and order in the province. The "Qurbani" asks the ministry to strike with an iron hand. The "Mirpurkhas Gazette" suggests that every town and village should have volunteer corps. The number of Hindu police officers should be increased an gun licenses should be granted freely. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th August 1940 Fortnightly report for the Second half of July 1940].

 

49.The statement of His Excellency the Viceroy had a poor press in Sind. Even the “Daily Gazette”. Which usually writes in a pro-Government strain, characterises it as a “parsimonious ofter”. It remarks: “It means that the British Government has decided to take a retrograde step instead of adapting themselves to the pressing needs of the present world situation. As such it betrays a grievous lack of statesmanship as well as diplomacy”. The “Sind Observer” remarks, :this pronouncement of the Viceroy instead of being an improvement on his previous ones is distinctly reactionary, retrograde and repugnant to our national self-respect”. The “Parsi Sansarand Loke Sevak” remarks that the statement would have suited the conditions of 1930. Unfortunately, it is 10 years too old for our present needs. The “Mahagujrat” writing under the caption: “We asked for bread but received a stone” remarks that the Viceroy neither agrees to the appointment of a Constituent Assembly nor makes his Government a national Government. It adds that the British Government have misunderstood Mahatma Gandhi’s generosity as weakness. The “Qurbani” remarks that at the time of making the announcement the Viceroy though India to be sleeping in the seventh century. He must know that this is the 20th century and India like other nations is wide awake. The “Sansar Samachar” commenting on the speech remarks “The Viceroy’s speech does not contain anything new, the same bogey of Hindu Muslim unity is raised although promise of expansion of expansion of the Viceroy’s cabinet is made. Only job hinters would co-operate with the Government. India wants a declaration of freedom after the war”. The “Nava Bharat” characterises the speech as a challenge to the Congress to start Satyagraha and remarks that non-violent volunteers should be kept in readiness. The “Sind Observer” regards the statement of the Secretary of State for India as only “a gramophonic reproduction” of what the Viceroy has stated. Other papers also write in the same strain.[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S) 40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 20th August 1940. Fortnightly Report for the first half of August 1940].

50.The Muslim newspapers complain bitterly of the use of the Sind Frontier Regulations in Sukkur district. The “Al-wahid” remarks that it is the duty of the Government to appoint an enquiry committee to investigate why the Muslims are being subjected to tyrannies and why the Collector of Sukkur district is partial to Hindus. The “Paigham-i-Kul” and “Al-Minar” also protest against the use of the Frontier Regulations in Sukkur district. The “Ittehad characterizes it a “black law”. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S) 40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 20th August 1940. Fortnightly Report for the first half of August 1940].       

51.Commenting upon the insecurity prevailing in Sind, the “Sind Tribune” observes that the Hindus must either organise themselves effectively or migrate from the province. The “Daily Sind News” remarks that unemployment is the root cause of the dacoities and murders and requests the Government to grant pieces of land to the unemployed villagers to enable them to engage in honest pursuits. The “Sind Observer” remarks: “that if the ministry is convinced that it has failed to stem the tide of criminalism, then like honest and true men, it should lay down the reins of office and tell His Excellency that in a province like Sind it is not possible for any popular ministry to tackle the problem of criminals.” [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S) 40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 20th August 1940. Fortnightly Report for the first half of August 1940].

52.The “Sind Observer”, commenting on the Congress Resolution, say “After five days of deep deliberation, at which every point of view was expressed, the Congress Working Committee passed a positive resolution asking for independence, which means to us Dominion Status after the war, and, during the period of war, which means the transitional period the Central Government of India is to be conducted by a Cabinet responsible to the Central Assembly. The question of a constituent assembly, elected on adult franchise to frame the future constitution of India, does not arise for the present but only after the war …… The Working Committee by its resolution has also shut the mouth of its critics who complain of its irreconcilable attitude. It is now easy for the Muslim League, the Hindu Mahasabha, the Liberal Federation and all the known political associations in the country to line up with, the Congress and make a similar demand ………….. The Viceroy’s proposal to take four more executive councilors and to talk of self-government after the war will not satisfy anybody. India is not a political infant and knows how tortuous British diplomacy is, and it also knows that imperialism easily forgets the benefactor after the peril has passed away. We do not think that any political party will accept the Viceroy’s proposal as against that of the Congress and still continue to exist as such in this country. The Congress has taken away the wind out of the sails of all oppositionists……. After the war terminates successfully in favour of Great British, the old yoke of autocracy cannot be reimposed upon this hapless country, economic and administrative exploitation of the country will not go on unhindered as during the past one century, and India will not go on unhindered as during the past one century, and India will not be content to live the life of the underdog for another century or more. A country of four hundred millions of people is not going to be any more under foreign subjection, though the means of its obtaining Swaraj may be the method of non-violent non-co-operation. India has grown into full manhood, thanks to the labours of Mahatmaji. She will not accept anything less than complete Swaraj. It is for BRITAIN TO GIVE or not to give. There is than complete Swaraj. It is for Britain to give or not to give. There is the choice before her. She must make the choice now.”[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S) 40.Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 22nd July1940. Fortnightly Report for the first half of July 1940].

53.The “Mirpurkhas Gazette” under the caption “Britons and the fruits of their actions” remarks that Britishers have kept India in bondage for 200 years and made her impotent by depriving her of arms. If a modern army were to be raised amongst her people, an army of about five crores could be conveniently raised. Such an army could have faced the whole world and countries like Russia, Italy, Germany and Japan could not have dared to cast their eyes on the British Empire, but the Britishers have all along been wishing that Indians should always remain as salves and without arms and hence the Britishers are reaping the fruits of their action in this war. Only enormous forces fully armed can face such an overwhelming German army and India could have easily done that, but England did not prepare India for such an eventuality. The paper appeals to the British Government that if they only give Indians solid promise of freedom every youth of India would fight for them and defeat Germany. The “Sansar Samachar” under a leader entitled “India’s condition” commenting on the India Bill writes that other dominions like South Africa and Canada are able to keep internal peace whereas India is not in a position to defend herself with her own army nor has she got her own national Government. She is just like an animal thrown in Jungle. The “Hindu” writing under the caption “Demand of the Congress Working Committee” remarks that by passing the resolution the Congress has assured England of its full help in case her request is granted. If England wants India’s help she should accede to the Congress demands because it is the birth right of every country to be free. ”[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S) 40.Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 22nd July1940. Fortnightly Report for the first half of July 1940].

54.The “Tomorrow” writing under a leader “Forewarned is Forearmed” remarks “The friends of British in India have sounded more than one warning…… Britain must trust Indians. India can raise an enormous army. If British were to trust Indians all educational institutions in India could be converted into military school and colleges, and factories in the country with Indian labour engaged on the production of arms and ammunitions for the equipment of Indians. The British Empire would then have in India a powerful ally more loyal than the allied whom the British trusted so much and on whom they depended so much.” [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No.P-25-H(S) 40.Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 22nd July1940. Fortnightly Report for the first half of July 1940].

55. The Provincial Press Adviser concerned a meeting of the local editors on 29th May and impressed upon them the necessity of avoiding scare headlines and of prudence in the presentation of war news. The editors seemed to realise the need for discretion and promised to exercise it. They suggested, however, that the chief cause of despondency was the German Radio - especially the Hindustani news which was eagerly listened to by the public. Government had already decided that the time had come to prohibit listening in to the Hindustani broadcast from Berlin, and were considering what action to take when the Government of India's 'communique' on the subject was received and promptly given effect to, to the great relief of the loyal public. As a matter of fact, for some days to this the 8-00 p.m. Hindustani broadcast was apparently being jammed from Delhi or -elsewhere, and although private listening in is not forbidden it is generally difficult to hear.[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 7th June 1940. Fortnightly Report for the second half of May1940].       

56. The capitulation of the king of Belgium is condemned by all the newspapers, who regard it as an of ingratitude to the Allies and of treachery to his own people. .[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 7th June 1940. Fortnightly Report for the second half of May1940].       

57. The "Hindu" of Karachi, in a leatherette entitled "The Duty of England" states that England should learn a lesson from this war which is chiefly due to the injustice caused by the Treaty of Versailles. Not only does the treaty require revision, but England should absolve herself from guilt regarding other matters. She did nothing to help China or Abyssinia and she has no right to keep India and Palestine enslaved. In reality Fascism is the creation of imperialist power and the grand Empire of the British has made some of the European powers jealous.The paper recalls that the new Premier was strongly opposed to India independence, and says that if the British Government follow his advice regarding India a serious situation may arise.[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 7th June 1940. Fortnightly Report for the second half of May1940]. 

58.The "Sind Observer" writing in the same strain remarks that valuable time has already been lost in bickerings over the political future of this country during the last eight months, and Lord Zetland's contribution to a solution of the tangle was to set up Muslim against the Hindus and enjoy the result. The war is not going to be won while a large slice of the Empire as represented by India with its four hundred millions of people is in a state of chronic discontent and despair. In a leaderette entitled "War and Post -War Problems in India", the same paper remarked that Imperialist philosophy has regarded India as a field for exploitation hitherto, and is now inclined to say: "After us the deluge". That may be all right for Britain, but for those to whom India is their 'janma Bhoomi' and 'Punya Bhoomi' it comes as a shock that when the world is being overrun by a modern Attila the rulers of India and the dispensers of its destiny are prepare to leave it in the same hopeless and helpless condition as England was when the Romans left its shores several centuries ago. As Tagore says, the hurricane come with its destruction but it also scatters the living seeds of life far and wide and creates great forests and more centers of life and civilization. Our friend Hitler is like that hurricane. He will do his destructive work and die. The nations will meet again, reunite the broken threads and love and live once more in peace forgetting that Hitler was ever born. At times I feel that Hitler is like a surgeon operating upon the diseased limbs of the European body -politic, namely, Capitalism and Imperialism, which are the curse of the world to-day as bad as Hitlerism". The last passage evoked comment from the "Daily Gazette" which in a leading article, dated 18th May, remarked on the irresponsible way in which the "Sind Observer" was playing with the was news. It pointed out that the editor of that paper had special reasons to be grateful for the liberty which he enjoyed under British Imperialism for if he had been in Germany and had written against “Our friends Hitler" and Hitlerism as he was writing against Britain and British rule in India, he would certainly have been liquidated ere now. The attitude of the "Sind Observer" also attracted the attention of the Military authorities, who went so far as to demand its suppression. But in the meanwhile the editor had received various warning from the Chief Secretary to Government and Provincial Press Adviser, and was accorded an interview by His Excellency the Governor on 22nd May, at which he promised improvement. This at once became apparent and has since maintained. .[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 7th June 1940. Fortnightly Report for the second half of May1940].       

59. The "Dukhayal" in its issue of 19th May states, "the Indian Nation Congress has clearly declared, both before and after the commencement of the European war, that enslaved India has no concern with this imperialistic war of England........ Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Congress, does wish to embarrass England at this time when she is engaged in a life and death struggle but this does not mean that he will sacrifice his country's right of freedom. If the Satyagraha movement of the Mahatma is started to day, it will not be with the object of embarrassing England but of achieving the country's freedom..... If England gives up her pride and bestows on India her birth-right of freedom, she will receive the support of forty cores of Indians and along with it the sympathy of the whole world. Otherwise she should expect no willing help from enslaved India."[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 7th June 1940. Fortnightly Report for the second half of May1940].       

60. The "Qurbani", a Sindhi daily, under the heading "Mr Churchill's Gift" remarks in its issue of 25th May, "we are not sorry for the help which India is giving to England. We on the country feel that India can give still more help and ought to give it, but we should like to ask if England has, in her own interests and that of the Dominions and the entire world, prepared the ground for receiving such help. Naturally our sympathies are with England, but the point is that she is hesitating to confer even Dominion Status on India after the war........... It would, therefore, have been better if instead of offering a gift of empty greetings to India, Mr. Churchill had sent a message that India was an independent members of the British Empire and that after the war she would have the right to frame her own constitution in accordance with the principal of self determination. Such a message would have satisfied India, and Mahatma Gandhi would have placed all the resources of this country at the disposal of British." [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 7th June 1940. Fortnightly Report for the second half of May1940].       

61. The enrolment of 'Satyagraha' volunteer and the conversion of Congress Committees into 'Satyagraha' Committees continue to be the main activities of the Congress. District Congress Workers Conferences were held at various places during the fortnight. The Executive Committee of the provincial Congress Committee has been converted into a 'Satyagraha' Supreme council in preparation for an impending Civil Disobedience movement. Members of the Executive Councils of the various District and Primary Congress Committee, who did not sign the 'Satyagraha' pledge, have been asked to resign. Only 'Satyagraha' Committees have been permitted to carry on Congress activities within their respective areas, other Congress Committees having ceased of function. All elections of office-bearers to the various Congress Committees were at first postponed sine die because of the coming satyagraha struggle: but it now appears that it is intended to hold them before the end of June. This 'Satyagraha' Committee of Karachi has decided to open a 'Satyagraha' Camp on 19th May, and the work of constructing the 'Pandal' has started: they had leased a site for it at a nominal rent from the Karachi Municipal Corporation, but Government have suspended the operation of this decision of the Municipal Standing Committee, and the ground will have to be vacated. No doubt some other site will other site will be found, though it is reported that an attempt may be made to defy the order. It is said that invitation are being issued to Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Pandit Jawaherlal Nehru to attend the opening ceremony. It has been explained that the object of organizing a 'Satyagraha' Sena was to keep a big army in readiness for any eventuality and that a large and well-trained force may unnerve the British, whose rule in India was already breathing its last and that it was a matter of a few years only before it would be dead and buried. Wherever 'Satyagraha' Committees have been formed, the members have taken to 'takli' and 'charkha' spinning and carrying out other tasks required of true 'satyagraha' volunteers. 'Charkha' classes have been opened at some places. The various local CongressCommittee have received circulars from the Sind Supreme Satyagraha Council calling for reports regarding the number of 'Satyagraha' Committees formed and members enrolled, the arrangements made for spinning and for enlisting the sympathy of Harijans towards the 'satyagraha' movement. The response to these efforts has been meagre indeed, and differences of opinion on the subject of the pledge have weakened the Congress still further. In some villages even the members of the committees have preferred to resign rather than sign the 'satyagraha' pledge, while at one place the response was so poor that the President, Vice-President, Secretary and joint Secretary of the Congress Committee refrained from signing the 'satyagraha' pledge and had to resign. Speeches, appealing to the public to join the 'Satyagraha' Sena and describing British war aims as false and insincere, have been made in a abundance by Congress leaders, who alleged that the Muslim Leagues was a foster child of British Imperialism and that unemployment and poverty would in India so long as British rule endured. people were exhorted not give any war help to British, and the redoubtable Dr. Choithram announced that Europe was in  such a state that it could not be said with any certainty whether the King- Emperor would be alive or not after a month. This same speaker, however, has since expressed his horror of the Nazi invasion of Holland and Belgium, and wondered how long India would be safe. He said that unity was the great need of the country. That the British were deceiving Indians, that their promises meant nothing, that no reliance can be put on their word, that democracy and the protection of week neighbors were hollow phrases, that anti-British feeling in Europe was so strong that it had imperiled the security of the British Empire and that the British had to plunge into the war in order to save their own skins, were some of the sentiments expressed at Congress meetings. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 16th May 1940. Fortnightly Report for the First half of May1940].       

62. The press of all shades of opinion has roundly condemned the German invasion of Holland and Belgium the Congress organs being among the most outspoken in their expressions of horror at the outrage. The "Sind Observer" prints in parallel columns the widely differing statements of Babu Rajendra Prasad and Pandit Jawaherlal Nehru, emphasising the contrast between the generous rage of the former at Nazi aggression The "Congress" of Karachi has an article entitled: " If Britain were Honest", in which it is sated that it is becoming clearer every day the British has absolutely no intention of dealing justly and fairly with India, and that the burden of her song is the same, viz.,  selfishness, insincerity , hypocrisy and making caption out of the differences and divisions existing in this country. The "Hindu" of Karachi in a leatherette entitled: "Sprinkling Salt on the Wounds of India", criticises the decision of Parliament to continue "Governor's raj" in the seven Congress provinces for a further period of twelve months, and says that the British Government itself is the cause of communal discord in India. The "Islah". says that if the allies are really fighting for democracy and for protection of weak powers, France should confer independence on Syria, Morocco, etc,. and England should break the chains of slavery of India, Palestine, etc., and England should break the chains of slavery of India, Palestine, etc., and adds that if they do so Hitler and Mussolini would not dare to disturb the peace of the world. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 16th May 1940. Fortnightly Report for the First half of May1940].       

63. The Hindu press has been very vocal in praise of the Azad Conference held at New Delhi, which is claimed to have had phenomenal success, and to have been a personal triumph for Khan Bahadur Allahbakhsh who is now regarded as an All-India statesman. The "Karachi Daily" says that a conference of this nature was long overdue and was necessary to counteract reactionary propaganda, and that the all round representative character of the Azad Conference was a proof of the disgust of the majority of Indian Muslims at the unpatriotic game played by the Muslim League, that the noise of the leagues must be met with greater noise and that the White Moghuls in London must realize now that further pampering of the Muslim League was dangerous. The "Sind Observed" states that educated Muslims, tried of Mr. Jinnah’s leadership, have found in this conference a positive and constructive urge. The "Sansar Samachar" says that the Delhi Conference is a timely snub to the League and its leader who used to call himself the only representative of Muslims, and adds that now the British will have no right to say that the communal problem stands in the way of the progress of India. The "Qurbani" states that the Muslim Nationalists will start branches everywhere to put an end to the mischievous propaganda of the Muslim Leagues and foster a spirit of nationalism, and hopes that Muslims will participate in the 'satyagraha' movement and make sacrifices for the freedom of the country. The "Qurbani" in another issue expresses satisfaction at the awakening among Muslims shown at the Azad Conference, which it says is a direct reaction to the Pakistan scheme fostered by the Muslim Leagues, and adds that the blot on the fair name of Muslims, that they were against the freedom of the country, has now vanished. The "Islah", says that the resolutions adopted at the Azad Conferences are a matchless reply to the today mentality of the Muslim Leagues and have exposed its fraudulent character. The "Hayat" on the other hand says that the Nationalist Muslim Conference was organised by some henchmen of the Congress who are Muslims only in name, and that this can be seen from the fact that they could not find a better president than Khan Bahadur Allahbakhsh, the defeated Premier of Sind. who is distrusted even by the people of his own provinces. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 16th May 1940. Fortnightly Report for the First half of May1940].

64. The "Qurbani", dated 3rd April 1940 attacks Mr. Jinnah in scurrilous language- saying that the "Pakistan" scheme has been ridiculed and condemned throughout the world. The same paper, it its issue of 6th April, refers to the history of National Week and states that once again preparations are being made for Satyagraha, and Mahatma Gandhi has commenced warning his followers of the ensuring struggle, although the country is not yet fit for the struggle, still success us assured. The "Hindvasi", dated 8th April, in a dialogue between a father and son expounds the meaning of Dominion States of Westminster variety, and explains that the reason why the Congress declines to accept this status is distrust of British intentions bred by past experience.[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 20th April 1940. Fortnightly Report for the First half of April 1940].

65. A meeting of the Karachi Journalists was held on the 18th January and a resolution protesting against the continuance of, and urging Government to withdraw, precensorship regarding the publication of Sukkur Manzilgah news was adopted. A Committee was formed to interview the Honourable Premier and the Honourable Minister for Law and Order, regarding the matter. As a result of this interview, my Memorandum No. 207/5-H(S), dated the 20th November 1939, was cancelled, and now the press is at liberty to publish news and comments, etc., in regard to the Manzilgah issue and the resultant agitation and the murder of Bhagat Kanwarram. It is expected that on account of the lifting of precensorship, communal bitterness in the press may be revived though a press Note has been issued warning all concerned to desist from communal propaganda. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 2nd  February 1940. Fortnightly Report for the Second half of January 1940].

66. The attitude of the Press is friendly on the whole. The Muslim newspapers emphasise the necessity of supporting Britain whole heartedly in view of the critical conditions of Islamic countries like Egypt and Turkey. The paper with Congress sympathies, particularly the "Sind Observer", protest against the policy adopted by the Government of India in arresting Satyagraha leaders and emphasise that no stone should be left unturned in effecting a settlement between the Congress and Government. The general tone of the press is anti-Nazi. The successes of Greece have been welcomed and splashed in headlines. Italy is universally disliked. The Satyagraha news of the arrests of ex-Ministers and Members of Legislative Assemblies is reported daily, but on the whole the papers do not give it undue prominence, nor do they give propagandist headlines. The news of the arrest of important leaders like Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mr. Vallabhai Patel was, however, give in bold headlines. The "Sind Observer" and the "Hindu" Published the statement made by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru at his trial and were asked by the Provincial Press Adviser to refrain from publishing such news in the future. The press is generally ready to accept the advice of the Provincial Press Adviser. Communalism, however, continues to be the main theme of a large section of the Sind Press. The President of the Journalists' Association has informed the Provincial Press Adviser that he will submit the names of the Press Advisory Committee in the second week of December. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 5th  December 1940. Fortnightly Report for the Second half of November 1940].

67. The arrest of the Pir of Bharchundi occupied a prominent place in all the newspaper the comments being divided on communal lines. The "Hindu" remarks that the action of the Government was opportune, proper and justified, as the Pir had a hand in all the murders which were committee in the Rohri Division. The "Sansar Samachar" congratulates the Government upon the step. The "Qurbani" is not satisfied with the arrest under the Regulation of 1827 and suggests that Pir should be tried and awarded a heavy sentence. The "Shikarpur Gazette" remarks that although the arrest is belated it has give considerable satisfaction to the oppressed Hindus and has infused a new life into them. The "Hayat" states that the Pir has been arrested to please the Hindus and will be set free when Government wish to please the Muslims. The paper suggested that he should be tried in an open court. The "Bab-ul-Islam" and "Paigham-Sulha" also write in the same strain. The "Al-wahid". however, remarks that the internment of the Pir of Bharchundi would be futile so long as there is no change of heart among the Hindus and Muslims. The Hindu press has been commenting at length over the murders which were committee in the Rohri Sub-Division during the last fortnight. The "Al-wahid" commenting on the these murders remarks that the insecurity which exists at present can only be uprooted by a programme by which Hindu-Muslim unity can be achieved permanently. Other Muslim papers also condemn the acts of violence, but resent the attitude of the Hindu press. The "Swaraj" remarks that the Ministry has not taken effective steps up to now. Other Hindu papers ascribe the state of insecurity to the weak policy of Government. The result of the interview of Mr. Gandhi with the Viceroy has not come as a surprise to the local press. The "Sind Observed" remarks; "Gandhiji therefore feels that the Viceroy is determined to rule as despotically as possible with a view to utilise the resources of India uncontrolled by the voice of the people, and that therefore to protest against such treatment of India, he must take some steps by way of direct action. That is the least he could do we think, for the sake of the self-respect of the self-respect of the nation." The "Hindu" remarks that the breakdown of the talks would bring about a serious situation in India. The "Parsi Sansar" and "Loke Sevak" commenting on the talks remarks: "Hitler and Mussolini are challenging India and to preach against war is really to bow to Rome and Berlin"[Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th  October 1940. Fortnightly Report for the First half of October 1940].

68. The Hindu papers are mainly speculating on the attitude which the Congress is going to adopt in the near future. Mr. Amery's speech has left the Congress-minded papers cold. The "Karachi Daily" remarks that the speech was very vague. The "Hindu" commenting upon the speech writes: "After ten months' serious delibrations and debates, the speech Mr. Amery has delivered on India is a mere repetition of the Viceroy's words and is absolutely disappointing". The "Qurbani" shows surprise that even at a critical moment like this the British statesmen are not acting in a statesmanlike manner. The "Hindu" writes that Government have decided to carry on administration with the help of the minorities. The "Daily Gazette" however, sees hope in Mr. Amery's speech and remarks: "We reciprocate the hope expressed by Mr. Amery that the Congress may yet profit by the opportunity offered by India". The Muslim papers the "Al-wahid", the "Nizam" and the "Hayat" welcome the recognition of the rights of minorities by His Excellency the Viceroy and the secretary of state for India. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 3rd  September 1940. Fortnightly Report for the Second half of August 1940].

69.The Congress resolution on the present situation is given much prominence and importance. The "Sind Observer" writes "The Wardha decision has succeeded in given focus to a strong patriotism which will grow as long as the threat to Indian independence remains. The time has come when the nation cannot stand still. It must either advance or degenerate." The "Daily Gazette" welcomes the Congress resolution and suggests that it imphes that the Congress is not averse to Dominion Status of the Westminster type. The "Hindu" remarks that it is wrong to say that the Congress had made a declaration for the launching of Civil Disobedience movement and appeals to the British Government to be far-S=sighted and to accept the claim of India for self-dermination. The "Sansar Samachar" observes that the Congress have still left the door open for negotiations with the British Government. The "Parsi Sansar and Loke Sevak" regards the Congress resolution as an invitation to the Viceroy to offer a few adjustments here and there and also advises Congress not to behave in a spirit of barter at this critical moment. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 3rd  September 1940. Fortnightly Report for the Second half of August 1940].

70. Mr. Churchill's speech elicited very favourable comments. The papers are unanimous in regarding it as a proof of the determination of Britain to see the war through. The losses sustained by the German Air Force in aerial attacks on Great Britain are regarded as very heavy and out of all proportion to the damagedone so far. [Source Government of Sind Home Department (Special) No. P-25-H(S)/40. Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 3rd  September 1940. Fortnightly Report for the Second half of August 1940].

71.At a meeting of the Hindu Sabha, Hyderabad, a resolution was passed sympathizing with the editor of the “Sansar Samachar”, because of his prosecution under Section 153-A, Indian Penal Code, for writing an article which was intensely communal. The recent prosecutions have made the Journalists’ Association more active. The “Sansar Samachar”, dated 1st March 1940 appeals to Hindus for monetary help to defend the editor. A sum of Rs. 1o has been raised so far for his defend. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

  

72.The “Sind Observer” writing under the head “Russia and Finland”, says that for weeks on end we have heard nothing through the Allied radio stations but accounts of the wonderful victories won by the Finns and defeats suffered by the Russians. It goes on to say that this highly coloured propaganda has done nothing but harm to the Finnish cause, as help to the Finns has taken the form of words through the either rather than war materials. The same newspaper in a leader on the “Ministerial Crises in Sind” observes that it is dangerous to allow a number of selfish M.L.As. To gamble with the fortunes of the province for their private ends, .[Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

 

73. The “Qurbani”, dated 3rd March writing under the caption “A bugle for preparation for War
“, states that the decision of the Ramgarh Congress is being anxiously watched as it is likely that civil disobedience may be launched, which the British think will fail, but which they should bear in mind will succeed, in spite of internal dissensions in the Congress ranks. Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

 

74. The “Daily Sind News”, dated 12th March, requests His Excellency the Governor of Sind to remember his duty and accept the resignation of the Allah Bakhsh Ministry and take charge of the administration himself. The “Sansar Samachar” of 5th March congratulated the Hindu Independent Party for sitting in the Opposition benches and appealed to them to vote in favour of the rupee one cut motions to bring down the Ministry.(These motions were all withdraw). It goes on to say that the public should net celebrate Holi because the minds of Hindus are grieved at the atrocities perpetrated against them in Sukkur. The “Qurbani”, dated 10th March advocating the Suspension of the constitution, requests the Hindu M.L.As. to resign their seats which, it says, should be kept vacant, thus forcing His Excellency to suspend the constitution. [Source No. P-25-h(s)/37, Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi, 19th March 1940 Fortnightly report for the first half of March 1940].

 75. Japan’s entry into the war has been universally condemned, and its method of attack has been enounced as treacherous. The ‘Daily Gazette’ hopes that this jackal of the east will be taught a good lesson. The “Sind Observer” remarks that Japanese will have to bleed themselves whits and die like flies in this gigantean undertaking. The “Hindu Sansar” remarks that Japan has invited trouble for herself. Other papers write in the same strain. America’s entry into the war is welcomed and although it is admitted that Japan, for the time being, has stolen a march over the Allies there is no doubt that the A.B.C.D front will prove impregnable in the end. There is general regret at the loss of the “Prinos of Wales” and “Repulse “, but the loss is by no means considered as irreparable. The “Sind Observer” made capital out of a remark in one of the “Reuter” messages to the next round will be ouis”. Other papers did not overrate the succoass of Rommel’s army. The continued advance of the Allied forces in Libya is being reported with favourable comments. German reverses in Russia have been prominently reported and editorial comments are full of admiration for the grit of Stalin’s forces. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi December 1941 Fortnight Report for the First Half of December 1941].     

76. The Muslim papers have drawn pointed attention to the destention of Allama Mashriqi and have asked why he has been left in jail when Satyagraha prisoners who were found guilty of specific offenses have been released prematurely. They hope that the Government will also release Allama Mashriqi soon. Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi December 1941 Fortnight Report for the First Half of December 1941].  

77. Monsiour Stalin’s broadest has created a very good impression. It was regarded as a straight reply to Hitler’s bombastic claims and was acclaimed as the statement of a man who is under no delusions himself and who does not wish others to be under any delusions either. The “Daily Gazette” review of the war situation follows closely the lines indicated in the Bi-weekly Guidance Notes. Other papers also remark on the slowness of the Gorman advance and on the exaggerations of the Gorman claims. Mr. Churchill’s speech at the Lord Mayor’s Day Luncheon receives banner headlines. His plain speaking to Japan has been commented upon in appreciative terms. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi November 1941. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1941].

78. The statement of Mr. Gandhi regarding the Satyagraha Movement has been adversely commented upon. The “Sindh Observer” remarked “Even if Gandhji remained “with us for another 75 years as the leader of the “country his path of satygraha will not lead the country “to Swaraj”. The “Daily Gazette”found the statement unconvincing. The hunger strike of the Deoli internees elicited considerable sympathy, the general criticism of the Government policy being that the consideration of the grievances of the hungor-strikers should not be postponed on the ground that the detenues have resorted to hunger strike. The “Hindu Sansar” “fails to understand why the “Government rejected the reasonable demands of Indian “prisoners when it had provided so many facilitations for “Italian and German prisoners India.” [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi November 1941. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1941].

79. The Government of India communiqué on the circumstances under which the later of Mr. Jai Prekash was intercepted was published in all the important papers. The statement of the Home Secretary to the Government of India on the where about of Mr. Subhas  Chandra Bose aroused considerable interest but the editorial cements have been, on the whole hostile. While the “Daily Gazette” regretted the news that Mr. Subhas Chandra Bose had gone over to the enemy, the “Sind Observer” considered the Home Secretary’s statement as a stunt to damn and to discredit both Mr. Bose “and the political party of which he is the head. “The Hindu” could not believe that a patriot like Subhas Chandra Bose should plan with the Nazis for the invasion of India. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi November 1941. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1941]. 

80.The British offensive in Libya has been welcome by all section of the Press. The news from Libya is reported in banner headlines and often secures precedence over the news from Russia. The editorial comments on the result of the Libyan campaign are very optimistic and there is satisfaction and gratification at the part played by the Indian troops. The “Daily Gazette” considers the campaign very valuable in diverting the German attention from Russia while the “Sind Observer” looks forward to the successful termination of the campaign which will prevent to the successful termination of the campaign which will prevent francs and Spain falling a prey to Axis machinations. The situate on in Russia is still regard as critical and it is consider that Hitler will stack to take Moscow. The papers have reported the fall of Rostov in banner headiness [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd December 1941. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of November 1941].                       

81. Mr. Amery’s Manchester speech has evoked hostile criticism, which is summed up by the “Hindu Sansar” in the following words: “Leave alone the India extremists, “even the well-wishers of the British rule must have “been sadly disappointed with Mr. Amery’s speech.” The “Daily Gazette” is the only paper which has commented upon it favorable. The paper regards the tone of the speech as conciliatory. Mr. Mac Governs remark in the Parliament regarding the Atlantic Charter vis-à-vis India preeminently displayed by the “Sind Observer”. The English papers quoted extensively from the “Times” leader on the Indian question and also the editorial remarks of the “Manchester Guardian” and the “Daily Herald”. There is a general disappointment at the decision to post pone the release of political prisoners. Although it is admitted that the release of political prisoners will not solve the present deadlock, it is navr-the-less stated that the release would have shown some change of heart on the part of the Central Government. The Muslim papers have shown anxiety on the hunger strike of Allame Washriqi and have appealed to Government to release him or to file a case against him in a court of law. The “Sind Observer” has drawn the attention of the authorities to the increased cost of living in Karachi and has appealed for effective’s control of prices. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd December 1941. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of November 1941].

82. The tone of the press continues to be anti-Nazi and anti-Fascist. War news occupies the most prominent place and is splashed in headlines hostile to the Axis powers. The passing of the Lease and Lend Bill by the American Congress has been welcomed by the entire press, the “Daily Gazette” regards it as ‘the most effective challenge to Hitlerism since the outbreak of the war”, the “Sind Observer” considers it “a notable landmark leading to a union of the English speaking races for the promotion and preservation of the peace of the world” while the “Sind Samachar” considers it to be a measure which will save democracy. Doubt is expressed by some papers as to the attitude of Turkey in view of the pressure of Germans, but the Muslim press hopes that Turkey will continue to range with the democracies. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 21st March 1941. Fortnight Report for the First Half of March 1941].

83. The attitude of the Pres continues to be friendly. War news continues to get the most prominent placed in the news of the day. It is generally agreed that Mussolini has come to grief in Africa. The Press has welcomed the speech of President Roosevelt advocating maximum aid to Britain and hope is expressed that his policy would be endorsed by the Congress. Satyagraha news is not prominently displayed. Even the news of the arrest of Moulana Abul Kalam Azad did not get banner headlines, although the arrest has been characterized as ill-advised and ill-timed. Muslim papers condemn the introduction of joint electorates in the local bodies in Sind. The Hindu press, however, advocates the extension of joint elect rotes to the District Municipalities and Local Boards and suggests that it would be a breach of faith on the part of Government to drop this salutary measure. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 18th January 1941. Fortnight Report for the First Half of January 1941]. 

                     

84. The second meeting of the Press Advisory Committee was held on the 13th January 1941, in which the Provincial Press Adviser read the letter of Mr. Gandhi addressed to Hitler and explained the reasons why it was withheld. All but one member agreed that the letter though innocuous on the whole would have been misinterpreted and misrepresented by the Nazi propagandists. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 18th January 1941. Fortnight Report for the First Half of January 1941].

10. The attitude of the Press continues to be friendly. The advances made by the British foces in Africa are very popular and are given due prominence. Comments on the Turvo Bulgarian Non aggression Pact while friendly to Turkey tend to emphasise that the Pact would not stop German infiltration into Bulgaria or passage of German troops through it. Satyagraha news has been thrown in the background. The following observations of the “Sind Observation” sum up the general attitude of the nationalist press. “Taking all things together, the Satygraha movement has not disturbed the sleep of even a single Subedar in the service of the Government, things are going on quite well for the Government, it is not behaving very vindictively towards the Satyagrahis as on previous occasions.” The latest speech of the Secretary of State for India was not favorablyby the Hindu press. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 6th March 1941. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of February 1941]. 

85. The war news, the food situation in India and the debates connected with it in the House of Commons and the Central Assembly, the defeat of Government in the Central Assembly on Dr. Deshmukh’s adjournment motion and the food rationing in Karachi were main topics featured by the Press during the fortnight under review. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 16th November 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1943]. 

 

86. As usual, the “Sind Observer” paid tributes to the gallant fighting of the Russians. The paper observed that it was for the permanent mastery of the world that Hitler launched his unprovoked attack on Russia, but Stalin whom he hoped to bring in chains has proved himself too good a match for him. In a later issue the same paper remarked :”Hitler’s hopes have been destroyed on account of the splendid Soviet victories and the merciless bombardment of German cities and Nazi occupied Europe by Allied air fleets and every where the enemy is on the defensive and the  Allies are marching from victory to victory, though there is still a large ground to cover before Nazism kisses the dust”. The “Daily Gazette” observed that the prevailing gloom in Germany is nowhere better reflected than in Hitler’s jitters”. The “Karachi Daily” said that Hitler forgets that it was he who started the destructive war to conquer the world and he must reap what he himself has sown. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 16th November 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1943]. 

 

87. Lord Wavell’s visits to famine areas have been received with feeling of satisfaction as a concrete expression of his desire to do all in his power to remedy the present food situation. The press expressed dissatisfaction at the course of the debate on the food situation in the House of Commons, Both the “Sind Observer: and the “Daily Gazette” have vehemently criticize the debate. The “Daily Gazette” captioned its leader on the subject: “Words, Words and Words”. Long reports of the food debate in the Central Assembly are appearing in the Press. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 16th November 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1943]. 

 

88. The decision of the Assembly members outside the Jails to attend the winter session of the Central Assembly has been received with mixed feelings by the “Daily Gazette”, while the “Sind Observer” considers the decision wise as the paper thinks that the presence of Congress members in the Assembly will put some life in the debates of the Assembly which are otherwise dull and uninteresting. The“Karachi Daily” thinks that it might be a matter of expediency, but expediency cannot be the bedrock of national honour. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 16th November 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1943]. 

 

89. The defeat of Government in the Central Assembly on Mr. Deshmukh’s adjournment motion was commented upon by the “Sind Observer” and the “Karachi Daily”, the “Sind Observer” are “they may do some mischief by misrepresenting India for which they were specially chosen, but that they would do any good is absolutely out of the question.” [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 16th November 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1943]. 

 

90. The proposed introduction of rationing in Karachi continues to be agitated. The “Sind Observer” says that the Punjab has not seen the need of introducing rationing and there is no reason why it should be introduced in Sind and in four cities only. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 16th November 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of November 1943].

 

91. The war news, the arrival of the new Viceroy in India and the food situation in the country were the main topics of interest in the Press. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd November 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of October 1943].

 

92.The “Sind Observer” paid tributes to the Russians for their unparalleled sacrifices in comparison with the other Allies and urged that Anglo-American help must reach Russia the next few weeks or months as the prolonged war of attrition is one which Russians do not like. The paper further remarked that the Allies had three years time to make gigantic preparations and they must now strike hard to bring the war to an end in 1944 [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd November 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of October 1943].

 

93. Commenting upon the Italian declaration of war on Germany, the “Daily Gazette” observes that it may not have any material effect on the military situation in Europe. It attached great importance to the Anglo-Portuguese agreement and considers it a great diplomatic victory for the United Nations. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd November 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of October 1943].

 

94.The “Karachi Daily” remarked that the Hitler’s train continues to move as fast as possible in its reverse locomotion and the Allies are fighting slowly but with their perseverance they will achieve ultimate victory. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd November 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of October 1943].

 

95.The change in the Viceroyalty provided a good occasion for editorial comments on the general situation in the country. The “Daily Gazette”, while according welcome to Lord Wavell. remarked “it is now Lord Wavell’s chance to succeed where his predecessor miserably failed.” The “Sind Observer” in an editorial under the caption “New Viceroy” remarked “ he will be judged not by his words but by his deeds as very Viceroy designate makes I a point to inaugurate his regime with sweet sentiments”. The “Karachi Daily”remarked that the appointment of Lord Wavell was first considered as a disappointment but later on, after his public announcements the apprehensions were minimized. The “Hindu Sansar” (a Sindhi daily of Karachi) remarked that unless policy is changed at the Whitehall, it is too much to expect great changes from the new Viceroy.  [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd November 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of October 1943].

 

96. The food situation, particularly in Bengal, and the high prices continue to provide topics for strong comments. The “Sind Observer” urged the appointment of Royal Commission to investigate the matter not only to apportion blame but also to give guidance for the future and to lay down the steps to be taken to cope with similar situation, its editorial caption being “Bengal and Parliament”. The “Daily Gazette” more or less wrote in the same strain under the caption “Wanted Enquiry”. The “Alwahid”. A Sindhi daily, regrets that inspire of all measures the food situation in Bengal has worsened and urges immediate steps to put a stop to this sorry spectacle. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd November 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of October 1943].

 

97. The ‘war news’ was displayed prominently by all the papers during the fortnight under report.[Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 2nd October 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of September 1943].

 

98. Commenting on the Italian battle the “Daily Gazette” wrote that Hitler’s attitude in Italy might delay but will not affect Allied victory. The paper said: “He is like a drowning man catching at the last straw”. The Sind Observer’s first reaction was to wait and watch but with progressive Allied successes; it changed its tone and said that the Allies had won the first round. The paper remarked that the situations was saved by the British navy which “poured thousand of shells on German positions and confounded the Hitlerites”. It considers that this has turned the tide of war in favour of the Allies. There were comments in Sindhi papers also on the events in Italy and dwindling of Germany”.[Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 2nd October 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of September 1943].

 

99. Apropos of Mussolini’s rescue by the Germans, the Sind Observer, remarked that Mussolini was now as good a dictator as Hitler himself though in the same issue it said that he can no longer claim equality with Hitler which he did in the past as now he will have to obtain Hitler’s orders on every issue. The paper further observes that the war in Italy will devastate Italian soil which will suit Hitler well. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 2nd October 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of September 1943].

100. The Russian successes were praised by the “Daily Gazette” which remarked that the fall of Smolensk to the Russains was a momentous event in the history of the war, and it dwarfed the Russian victory over Napoleon in 1812 adding that it will spread gloom throughout the Reich. The Karachi Daily doubtfully, through meaning well, wrote: “It Hitler knows how to run his train on a forward journey, he is no less an expert in the art of running it in the reverse”. It further added that year 1943 would remain in the history of war as remarkable for the retreats of Hitler. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 2nd October 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of September 1943].

 

101. The Daily Gazette attaches great importance to the fall of the Dodecanese Islands and Samos as the paper considers that this will expose the whole system of Nazi defence right up to Greek mainland. This news was splashed with a page headline, the heading being “Allies move in eastern Mediterranean”. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 2nd October 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of September 1943].

 

102. The food situation I Bengal continues to be vehemently criticized by the Press. The “Daily Gazette”wrote: “Bengal is admittedly in the grips of an unprecedented wave of food distress. That somebody has bungled cannot be denied”. The remarks of the Sind Observer in this respect are: “Charges of corruption and nepotism seem to have been well founded and some persons in high places are not free from blame”. The paper further demands that the Governor of Bengal should look into this and bring offenders to book. It went to the extent of suggesting suspension of the constitution for a period of six months till the food crisis was over. The Sansar Samaa har,a Sindhi daily wrote that more than 80 per cent of the responsibility for the happenings in Bengal was no the Bengal Government. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 2nd October 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of September 1943].

 

103. The suggestion made by Sir Patrick Spens, Chief Justice of the Federal Court, for a Supreme Court for India is received with satisfaction. Both the Sind Observer and the Daily Gazette consider the establishment of such a Court a necessity. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 2nd October 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of September 1943].

 

104.Both the English and the Sindhi papers continue to take lively interest in the war newa. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

 

105. The fourth anniversary of the war was celebrated by the Press by editorial comments and by issuing special numbers. The Sind Observer paid tributes to the Allies for their mighty purpose and strong determination in spite of incalculable losses and said that for three years the Allies suffered at the hands of the Nazis and were hardly able to keep head above water. The fourth years, however, has turned the tide in fovour of the Allies with their vbictories in North Africa, their conquest of Pantellaria and Sicily and their invasion of the Italian mainland. The paper further said that the fall of Mossolini was a triumph of the first magnitude and that one of the evil spirits of this war lay brined under the weight of his own inequities. In the same strain were the comments of the Daily Gazette which brought out a special number on the occasion. The paper said that the year was marked by the disappearance of Mussolini and elimination of the Fascist party in Italy itself. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

 

106. The Sansar Samachar, a Sindhi daily, remarked that Mr. Churehill’s prophecy had come out true. The paper opined that the Axis had neared their destruction. The Hayat, an Urdu paper, also published a special number on the occasion. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

    

107. The unconditional surrender of Italy was received with jubilation by the Press. The Sind Observer remarked that one leg of the Axis tripod was knocked off once for all and sooner or later the stool which cannot stand on two legs would fall to the ground. The Karachi Daily said that one arm of the Axis was completely cut off. The Daily Gazette splashed the news “Italy Surrenders” in a two inch full page headline. Its editorial caption on the subject was “Great News”. The Daily Azad said that the surrender of Italy would quicken victory. The Hindu Sansar wrote that the surrender of Italy had proved that her joining in the war against the Allies was a blunder. Commenting further on the above, the Sind Observer thinks that position of Germany at present is like that of England after the fall of France. The Daily Gazette, however, considers that surrender of Italy should not be compared with capitulation by France as the Italian submission was altogether of a different type. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

 

108. The Press continues to praise Russians for their gallant fight and success against the Nazis. The Sind Observer remarked that Hitler had been forced to abandon one position after another and that he was on the gallop. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

 

109. Reports on the food situation in Bangal continue to receive great attention in the Press. The Daily Gazette demands that an impartial commission of Enquiry must be set up to allocate blame for present state of affairs after the position is set right. Some importance is give in the Hindu nationalist papers to the criticism contained in Dr. Mukherjee’s letter addressed to be the Governor of Bengal. The Daily Gazette, the Daily Azad, the Hindu Sansar ad the sansar Samachar published some pictures of semi-starved persons in Calcutta. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

110. The Federal Court Judgment holding Ordinance XIV of 1943 to be valid came under comment Both the Sind Observer and the Daily Gazette complained that the Ordinance should not have been issued in the face of the previous judgment of the Federal Court in the Talpade case in which the detention of persons under section 26 of the Defence of India Rules was held to be illegal. The Sind Observer’s remark in this connection is. “It is an unprecedented step to overrule the judgment of the Federal Court and is a slap in its tace”. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

111. The Government of India’s control order on cloth and yarn came under criticism. The Daily Gazette remarked that prices fixed by Government were 300 per cent above pre-war levels and needed radical reduction. The paper on the country suggested in another article that the Government should withdraw their embargo on trading in cotton futures, and should also remove ceiling prices on cotton which had hit the cotton growers. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 17th September 1943. Fortnight Report for the First Half of September 1943].

41. The Press displayed the war news with the usual prominence during the fortnight, but reports of the food position in Bengal came a very close second. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd September 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of August 1943]. 

112. Commenting on the Sicikian campaign, the “Daily Gazette” remarked that the battle was bitterly fought by the Axis, but they were outnumbered and outgeneraled and the final outcome was never in doubt. The paper added “the Sicilian battle will be rembered more as it precipated the fall of Mussolint, which up to date is the greatest achievement of the fall of Mussolini, which up to date is the greatest achievement of the Allies”. The “Sind Observer” wrote: “the conquest of Sicily must not be measured only by the territorial gain achieve by the Allies. It is an important land-mark and a turning point in the war because the Mediterranean line has now been completely opened for Allied shipping”. The paper further said that Italy stood on the brink awaiting invasion on the here hold of the fifth year of the war, the editorial caption being “Zero Hour for Italy”. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd September 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of August 1943]. 

113. The news of the recapture of Kharkov by the Russians was cheerfully received by the Press. The “Daily Gazette” considers this a great success as it gives complete control to the Red Army over the Moscow-Orel-Kursk-Kharkov railway. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd September 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of August 1943]. 

44. The Press urged the opening of another front on the continent of Europe so as to relieve Russia. It considers that Russia may not stand a prolonged war and hence a second front in the west with a simultaneous attack on Italy is considered a timely measure. [Source Home Department (Special), Sind Secretariat, Karachi 3rd September 1943. Fortnight Report for the Second Half of August 1943]. 

 

       

 

     

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